Interactions Between AMERICAN INDIANS and EUROPEANS [APUSH Unit 2 Topic 5] 2.5

Interactions Between AMERICAN INDIANS and EUROPEANS [APUSH Unit 2 Topic 5] 2.5


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In this video Heimler takes you through Unit 2 Topic 5 of the AP U.S. History curriculum which is set in period 2 (1607-1754).

Here we discuss the interactions between American Indians and the various groups of Europeans who showed up on the shores of the Americas. Reaching back into the previous period, we begin with Spain and their introduction of a caste (casta) system for societal reorganization and a new forced labor system called encomienda.

But the English and French in North America didn't encounter large, urban populations of natives as did the Spain. The English forced natives off the land rather than subjecting them for labor. Still, such policies led to violence in Metacom's War (aka King Philip's War). The French were more interested in trade partnerships and so that arrangement largely dictated how they interacted with the American Indians.

If you have any questions, leave them below and Heimler shall answer forthwithly.


5.3 Interactions between American Indians and European Explorers

This inquiry set is designed to provide students with an introduction to and a geographic overview of the ways in which different European explorers and settlers interacted with American Indians. The investigative question How did European explorers interact with American Indians? provides the opportunity for teachers to introduce three key concepts to students — conflict, diplomacy, and religion — and to consider the role that each concept plays in the development of the United States.

  • HSS 5.3.1 Describe the competition among the English, French, Spanish, Dutch, and Indian nations for control of North America.
  • HSS 5.3.2 Describe the cooperation that existed between the colonists and Indians during the 1600s and 1700s (e.g., in agriculture, the fur trade, military alliances, treaties, cultural interchanges).
  • HSS 5.3.3 Examine the conflicts before the Revolutionary War (e.g., the Pequot and King Philip's Wars in New England, the Powhatan Wars in Virginia, the French and Indian War).
  • HSS 5.3.4 Discuss the role of broken treaties and massacres and the factors that led to the Indians' defeat, including the resistance of Indian nations to encroachments and assimilation (e.g., the story of the Trail of Tears).
  • HSS 5.3.5 Describe the internecine Indian conflicts, including the competing claims for control of lands (e.g., actions of the Iroquois, Huron, Lakota [Sioux]).
  • ELD.PI.5.1.Em
    Contribute to conversations and express ideas by asking and answering yes-no and wh- questions and responding using short phrases.
  • ELD.PI.5.1.Ex
    Contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, including sustained dialogue, by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, and adding relevant information.
  • ELD.PI.5.1.Br
    Contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, including sustained dialogue, by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information, building on responses, and providing useful feedback.
  • ELD.PI.5.2.Em
    Collaborate with peers on joint writing projects of short informational and literary texts, using technology where appropriate for publishing, graphics, and the like.
  • ELD.PI.5.2.Ex
    Collaborate with peers on joint writing projects of longer informational and literary texts, using technology where appropriate for publishing, graphics, and the like.
  • ELD.PI.5.2.Br
    Collaborate with peers on joint writing projects of a variety of longer informational and literary texts, using technology where appropriate for publishing, graphics, and the like.
  • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.3
    Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.
  • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.4
    Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
  • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.9
    Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

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First Encounters in the Americas

When two people meet for the first time, each takes stock of the other, often focusing on differences. Scholar Martha Minow warns that difference always “implies a reference: difference from whom? I am no more different from you than you are from me. A short person is different only in relation to a tall one a Spanish-speaking student is different in relation to an English-speaking one. But the point of comparison is often unstated.” 1 By identifying unstated points of comparison, we can examine the relationships between those who have the power to assign labels of difference and those who lack that power.

The first meetings between Europeans and the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas 2 illustrate Minow’s argument. Historians Peter Carroll and David Noble describe those encounters:

[On] an otherwise ordinary autumn day shortly after sunrise, the Arawak inhabitants of the Caribbean Islands noticed strange ships sailing on the horizon, much larger than their dugout canoes. As these ships moved closer and closer, they saw strange-looking people with light skins aboard, making odd gestures. The Arawak youths stood at the banks hesitantly, and then some of the braver men began swimming toward the mysterious boats.

These strangers offered the Arawak red-colored caps, glass beads, and other curious trifles. In exchange, the Arawak brought parrots, cotton skeins, darts, and other items. Then the strangers drew out swords, which the Arawak, in ignorance, grasped by the blades, cutting themselves. It was a symbolic act, this inadvertent drawing of blood. For the Arawak and the strangers looked at the world from opposite angles, and both were fascinated by what the other was not. 3

To the Arawak, the newcomers were so obviously different in language, dress, and color that the Arawak doubted that the Europeans were human beings. “They believe very firmly,” wrote Christopher Columbus after his first voyage to the Americas, “that I, with these ships and people, came from the sky.” 4 Other Indigenous Peoples reacted in similar ways to their first encounters with Europeans.

Columbus and other Europeans had their own misconceptions. They mistakenly believed that the Arawak were “Indians.” Carroll and Noble write:

This misconception originated in Columbus’s basic error (which he himself never realized) in thinking that in sailing westward from Europe he had reached the Indies [in Asia], which were the true object of his voyage. To Columbus, it was literally inconceivable that he had found previously unknown lands. Like other Europeans of his time, he believed firmly in the completeness of human knowledge. What he saw, therefore, he incorporated into his existing worldview, and the Native Americans thereby became, to the satisfaction of most Europeans, simply Indians. 5

In describing the “Indians,” Europeans focused not on who they were but on who they were not. They then went on to describe what the Indigenous Peoples did not have. Amerigo Vespucci, for whom the Americas are named, described the “Indians” as neither Muslims nor Jews. He noted that they were “worse than heathen because we did not see that they offered any sacrifice, nor yet did they have a house of prayer.” John Winthrop, an Englishman who helped found the Massachusetts Bay Colony, justified his claims to the Indigenous Peoples’ land by arguing that they did not mark their ownership of it in ways that Europeans recognized. He wrote that they “enclose no land, neither have they any settled habitations, nor any tame cattle.” 6

To many newcomers, the Indigenous Peoples were not only “backward” but also dangerous. In historian Ronald Takaki’s words, “They represented what English men and women in America thought they were not—and, more important, what they must not become.” 7 Colonial leaders warned that colonists must strictly adhere to the laws and moral guidelines that defined their communities otherwise they would allow themselves to become “Indianized.” Increasingly, “to be ‘Indianized’ meant to serve the Devil.” It also meant to be “decivilized, to become wild men.” 8 After all, the English viewed "Indians" as people living outside of “civilization.”

Such ideas were rooted at least in part in religious beliefs. As Carroll and Noble point out in their description of Spanish explorers,

Europeans in the age of Columbus saw themselves as Christians, the most spiritually pure people in creation. This ethnocentric idea found reinforcement in the ideals of the Roman Catholic Church, which claimed to be a universal spiritual community. Yet this ideology clearly excluded such religiously different people as Muslims, against whom Christians had waged holy wars for centuries, and Jews, who remained outsiders throughout European society. Believing in a single unitary religion, members of the Catholic Church viewed [nonbelievers] as suitable either for conversion to the true faith or worthy only of death or enslavement. Such religious attitudes shaped the Europeans’ relations with Africans as well as Native Americans. 9

Such attitudes were not limited to Europeans who were Catholic. They were shared by Protestants as well.

Relations between the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas and the Europeans were also shaped by the fierce competition among European nations for wealth and power. As Europeans took control of more and more of the Americas, millions of Indigenous People were killed. Countless others were pushed into the interior of both continents. Still others were forced into slavery.


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American Indians and Westward Expansion

The first people to live in what we now call Iowa may have arrived some 8,000-10,000 years ago. They lived along the edges of the receding glaciers and hunted large game animals. Gradually, groups began to plant and harvest gardens of corn, beans, pumpkins and squash and gather nuts, berries and fruits to supplement their meat supply. By around 1,200 C.E., corn had migrated along the Gulf Coast and up the Mississippi to tribes in the Upper Midwest who became known as the Oneota culture. They established villages to which they returned for many years after seasonal deer and buffalo hunts.

European Arrival

The arrival of Europeans on the continent had an impact on the Midwest long before permanent settlers came. French and English colonies along the Atlantic Coast displaced eastern American Indian tribes who were forced west to compete with existing tribes. The earliest French and English these tribes encountered were not settlers competing for lands fur trappers and traders. They brought with them manufactured goods — blankets, cookware, knives, guns — to exchange for beaver, deer and other skins that sold for high prices in Europe.

Internal competition among both American Indians and European sides of the trading partnership led to conflicts. As the French and English battled for control the Atlantic Coast and Canada, they made allegiances with tribes. The French clashed with the Meskwaki (sometimes mistakenly called the Fox) and their Sac allies who were forced south from their homelands in Wisconsin and Michigan into eastern Iowa. These tribes became allies of the British against the French and later against the former British colonists, the Americans.

The other major tribe as American settlement began to put direct pressure Iowa lands in the 19th C. were the Sioux across the northern regions of future Iowa. The Sioux were the last to relocate out of the state in 1851.


King Philip’s War

This Decision Point should build on students’ knowledge of tensions between American Indians and English settlers discussed in The Anglo-Powhatan War of 1622 Narrative. After reading this Decision Point, later tensions can also be explored in the Bacon’s Rebellion Narrative.

In what is now Massachusetts, the period between the Pilgrims’ landing in 1620 and the 1661 death of Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag confederation, was one of mostly peaceful coexistence between the colonists and the local tribes. The American Indians, however, were suffering. Their population had been decimated by European diseases. Moreover, they had lost tribal lands due to legal sales to the colonists and illegal land grabs, which meant they had less area for hunting and agriculture. It was clear to American Indian leaders that English power was increasing while the power of the Indians was declining.

This map indicates the domains of New England’s native inhabitants in 1670, a few years before King Philip’s War.

Upon Massasoit’s death, his two sons took control of the Pokanoket tribe within the Wampanoag confederation of Indians. Massasoit’s elder son, Wamsutta (also known as Alexander), died under mysterious circumstances after having been interrogated by Plymouth authorities about rumors that the Pokanokets were amassing muskets and discussing possible warfare. Wamsutta’s brother, Metacom (also known as King Philip), now took control of the Pokanokets. He knew what was coming and had to decide how he would react to the expansion of the English. “I am determined not to live until I have no Country,” he said. An act of violence would be the catalyst for his decision to fight the English.

Tensions increased further in 1674 when the English accused the Pokanokets of killing one of their interpreters, a Christian Indian named John Sassamon. Sassamon had recently decided to live among the English, and his body was discovered in a pond under the winter ice. His death was thought accidental until another Christian Indian, Patuckson, accused three Pokanokets of murdering Sassamon. An English court of twelve jurors and an auxiliary Indian jury found the three Pokanokets guilty of the murder and hanged them. Just one year later, the situation reached a boiling point when Philip’s warriors, probably without his consent, killed some English cattle in the town of Swansea. The English responded by shooting one of the warriors. The war had begun.

Wampanoag warriors were quickly joined by warriors of the Nipmuck and many smaller tribes along the Connecticut River. In the opening months of the war, the Indians were highly successful through a combination of raiding English frontier towns, killing hundreds of settlers, and ambushing the English militia. In fact, one of the worst losses suffered by the English was the ambush at Bloody Brook (in South Deerfield, MA), when Indian warriors killed 76 colonists in a lightning-fast strike. They also attacked several towns, including Brookfield and Springfield. After driving off an attacking Indian army, the English sent one hundred American Indian women and children into slavery.

Meanwhile, the Wampanoag and their allies captured English colonists who, if they survived, might be released in exchange for ransom payments. One such colonist was Mary Rowlandson from Lancaster, who suffered more than two months of captivity. She later chronicled her ordeal in a best-selling book, describing how the band of American Indians who held her was always on the move and hungry. Their forced mobility impeded the Indians’ ability to conduct warfare, but they were not able to grow their crops, because the colonists had located many of their villages and burned them to the ground. The American Indians conducted what now is called guerrilla warfare, but being constantly on the move was wearing them down.

Puritan Mary Rowlandson wrote her captivity narrative, (a) the front cover of which is shown here, after her capture during King Philip’s War. Her narrative tells of her treatment by the Indians, as well as of her meetings with the (b) Wampanoag leader Metacom (King Philip), shown in a contemporary portrait.

Because the English were losing the war in the opening months, they took a calculated gamble and planned an attack on the powerful Narragansetts. The Narragansetts (living in what is now Rhode Island) were a neutral tribe, but the colonists feared they would soon join King Philip’s warriors and the other hostile tribes. English authorities decided a sneak attack on the Narragansetts was worth the risk, and in December 1675, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth Colony, Rhode Island, and Connecticut sent one thousand militia to spring an attack on a major Narragansett winter encampment. Between three hundred and six hundred Narragansett warriors and men, women, and children were killed in the assault, as were many of the colonists. The Narragansetts retaliated by raiding several English towns and killing many colonists in the first four months of 1676.

The attacking English had been assisted by Mohegans, illustrating that not all the Indians of New England were aligned with Philip in the uprising. The inability of the tribes to unite against the English was a major reason the tide of the war shifted in the spring of 1676. Friendly Indians acted as guides for the English, helping prevent the English from walking into ambushes. One English militiaman, Captain Benjamin Church, became very adept at learning from his Indian allies, and he had considerable success killing and capturing hostile American Indians.

The battle that broke the back of the Indian war effort occurred at modern-day Turners Falls in May 1676. American Indians had used Peskeompskut, a village on the banks of the river, as a place to rest and resupply before setting out on more raids. They must have believed they were relatively safe because the village was north of any sizable English town, so they posted few guards. However, Captain William Turner marched his troops north from the Hadley, Northampton, area and surrounded the village during the night. At dawn, the soldiers attacked, killing many unsuspecting Indians.

By June 1676, it was clear to the Indians that the English were just too strong in southern New England. Many went north and joined the Abenakis. Others surrendered, only to be either executed or sold into slavery to toil in the sugarcane fields of Bermuda or the Caribbean. King Philip returned to his home grounds at Mount Hope (Bristol, Rhode Island) with a handful of Indians still loyal to him. Perhaps he knew the war was over and wanted to go down fighting in the land he knew best. But his stay at Mount Hope was short. Benjamin Church, using friendly Indians as guides, tracked him down with the help of one of Metacom’s men who betrayed him. Church located Metacom’s camp a handful of Indians still loyal to Metacom were hiding in the woods alongside their leader. Church positioned his men in a wide circle around the camp, so that if Metacom and his men tried to flee, they would be intercepted by musket fire. Church chronicled in his diary what happened next. When Metacom realized he was discovered, he ran within range of an Englishman and his Indian ally. “They let him come fair within shot,” Church recorded, “and the Englishman’s gun missing fire, he bid the Indian to fire away, and he did so to purpose: sent one musket bullet through his heart, and another not above two inches from it. He fell upon his face in the mud and water, with his gun under him.”

With Metacom dead and the remaining hostile Indians fleeing to northern New England, the war in Massachusetts and Rhode Island sputtered to an end. It was the costliest war in American history in terms of casualties as a percentage of the population. The American Indians were driven out of their villages in southern New England, but the colonists suffered almost as much: More than half the English settlements were attacked during the war, and many colonists were left homeless. The king of England responded by tightening the reins on New England’s freedom, which the colonists later resisted.

Many of the American Indians who survived the war sought their revenge by aligning themselves with the French in Canada. Not long after King Philip’s War ended, the long nightmare of the French and Indian Wars began.

Review Questions

1. In what region of North America was King Philip’s War fought?

2. Which American Indian nation was the primary adversary of British settlers during King Philip’s War?

3. All the following contributed to the start of King Philip’s War in 1674 except

  1. the general decline of American Indian power in the region
  2. the suspicious death of Phillip’s (Metacom’s) brother
  3. the terrorizing of English cattle by Phillip’s warriors
  4. inefficient interpreters from France who generated tension between the American Indians and the English

4. All the following military strategies were successful for the Wampanoag confederation during King Philip’s War except

  1. raids along the English frontier
  2. ambushes of English militia
  3. the selling of English settlers into slavery
  4. the capture of English settlers for ransom

5. Which best explains what happened to King Philip (Metacom) during the war?

  1. He successfully led his people to triumph, halting English advancement on American Indian lands.
  2. He retreated to Canada, never to be seen or heard from again.
  3. He was found and murdered by English leader Benjamin Church.
  4. He was sold into slavery and toiled in sugar cane fields until his death.

6. In the New England region, all the following were direct effects of King Philip’s War except

  1. American Indians were driven out of their villages.
  2. Colonists’ homes were ransacked and destroyed in many frontier locations.
  3. The king of England restricted the colonists’ freedom.
  4. French colonists from Quebec united with the English to defeat the American Indians.

Free Response Questions

  1. Explain what caused the conflict between English settlers and American Indians in New England.
  2. Explain the impact of King Philip’s War on the English settlers.

AP Practice Questions

“The loss to the English in the several colonies is reckoned to amount to 150,000 pounds. . . . There having been about 1,200 houses burned, 8,000 head of cattle killed, and many thousand bushels of wheat and other grain burned . . . and upward of 3,000 Indian men, women and children destroyed, who if well managed would have been very serviceable to the English.”

Edward Randolph, “The Causes and Results of King Philip’s War,” 1675

1. What additional impact of King Philip’s War on New England can be inferred from the excerpt provided?

  1. sincere sadness at the loss of life during the conflict
  2. willingness to exploit the labor of American Indians
  3. rejuvenation of New England Colonies
  4. population boom at the conclusion of the war among English and American Indians families

2. Which of the following best describes a long-term effect of King Philip’s War?

  1. New England settlers began to rely more heavily on African slaves.
  2. American Indians began siding with the French in imperial conflicts.
  3. Most American Indian groups adopted a nomadic lifestyle to escape persecution.
  4. English governance grew more responsive to the needs of American Indians.

Primary Sources

King Philip Relates Indian Complaints about the English Settlers: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6226

Suggested Resources

Demos, John. The Unredeemed Captive: A Family Story from Early America. New York: Vintage, 1995.

Leach, Douglas Edward. Flintlock and Tomahawk: New England in King Philip’s War. Woodstock: Countryman Press, 2009. Orig. pub. 1958.

Lepore, Jill. The Name of War: King Philip’s War and the Origins of American Identity. New York: Vintage, 1998.

Mandell, Daniel R. King Philip’s War: Colonial Expansion, Native Resistance, and the End of Indian Sovereignty. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.

Schultz, Eric B. and Michael J. Tougias. King Philip’s War: The History and Legacy of America’s Forgotten Conflict. Woodstock: Countryman Press, 1999.


In both the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War, European countries fought for control of North America. What was the main difference between these two wars The French and Indian War involved Native Americans. The American

How about -- class structure in your town or school? prejudice about a particular ethnic group? classroom group projects? perceptions about authority figures? sorry i wrote in dat language i need to do a project in sociology for 20 marks and i am not able


British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1763-1766

When the French and Indian War finally ended in 1763, no British subject on either side of the Atlantic could have foreseen the coming conflicts between the parent country and its North American colonies. Even so, the seeds of these conflicts were planted during, and as a result of, this war. Keep in mind that the French and Indian War (known in Europe as the Seven Years' War) was a global conflict. Even though Great Britian defeated France and its allies, the victory came at great cost. In January 1763, Great Britain's national debt was more than 122 million pounds [the British monetary unit], an enormous sum for the time. Interest on the debt was more than 4.4 million pounds a year. Figuring out how to pay the interest alone absorbed the attention of the King and his ministers.

Nor was the problem of the imperial debt the only one facing British leaders in the wake of the Seven Years' War. Maintaining order in America was a significant challenge. Even with Britain's acquisition of Canada from France, the prospects of peaceful relations with the Native America tribes were not good. As a result, the British decided to keep a standing army in America. This decision would lead to a variety of problems with the colonists. In addition, an uprising on the Ohio frontier - Pontiac's Rebellion - led to the Proclamation of 1763, which forbade colonial settlement west of the Allegany Mountains. This, too, would lead to conflicts with land-hungry settlers and land speculators like George Washington (see map above).

British leaders also felt the need to tighten control over their empire. To be sure, laws regulating imperial trade and navigation had been on the books for generations, but American colonists were notorious for evading these regulations. They were even known to have traded with the French during the recently ended war. From the British point of view, it was only right that American colonists should pay their fair share of the costs for their own defense. If additional revenue could also be realized through stricter control of navigation and trade, so much the better. Thus the British began their attempts to reform the imperial system.

In 1764, Parliament enacted the Sugar Act, an attempt to raise revenue in the colonies through a tax on molasses. Although this tax had been on the books since the 1730s, smuggling and laxity of enforcement had blunted its sting. Now, however, the tax was to be enforced. An outcry arose from those affected, and colonists implemented several effective protest measures that centered around boycotting British goods. Then in 1765, Parliament enacted the Stamp Act, which placed taxes on paper, playing cards, and every legal document created in the colonies. Since this tax affected virtually everyone and extended British taxes to domestically produced and consumed goods, the reaction in the colonies was pervasive. The Stamp Act crisis was the first of many that would occur over the next decade and a half.


Unit 2 - American Revolution - Unit Plan

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American Revolution

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American Revolution

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Graduate

Graduate standing is a prerequisite for all graduate-level courses. For more graduate courses (200+), look at history undergraduate colloquia (courses numbered 160�).

HIGR 200. History and Theory (4)

An introductory graduate course for students in all fields. Themes include cross-field historiography and theory, interdisciplinary approaches to history and historical method. (May be taken twice for credit, if the reading list is significantly different.)

HIGR 203. Madness and Society (4)

An examination of the place of madness in Western and non-Western cultures. Combining sociological and historical perspectives, this course will mostly focus on the period from the eighteenth through the twenty-first centuries. Students may not receive credit for HIGR 203 and SOCG 247.

HIGR 204. History of Capitalism (4)

This seminar will consider a number of classic works and contemporary scholarship that address the resurgent field of the history of capitalism. The course will examine the history of the political economy of the U.S. and its particular version of capitalism, but it will also consider the history and significance of capitalism’s development in other nations.

HIGR 205. Historical Scholarship on Women and Gender (4)

An introduction to historical scholarship on women and gender, this cross-field course is designed for graduate students from all fields in history as well as from other related disciplines. The course will introduce major themes, debates, and theoretical approaches to women’s and gender history. The content of the course will change from year to year, but will include theoretical texts, historical case studies from different times and places, and primary sources. May be taken for credit two times.

HIGR 206. Histories of the Body (4)

Historical topics related to the human body, as a target of regulation, a site for the production of knowledge, the locus of an identity shaped by race, gender, and sexuality, and/or in terms of movement across geopolitical boundaries.

HIGR 207. Nationalism, Colonialism, and Race (4)

A transdisciplinary and comparative course on the interplay of nationalism, colonialism, and race (as well as class and gender/sexuality) in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

HIGR 208. Graduate Professional Development (4)

Provides instruction in academic professionalization, including qualifying exams prospectus/grant writing conference presentations publishing articles/books job market and tenure review. Weekly readings, writing assignments, discussion, and peer review develop skills necessary for success as graduate students and future faculty.

HIGR 209. Historical Pedagogy (4)

An introductory graduate course for students in all field groups. The seminar introduces students to useful skills, methods, and techniques for teaching history. May be taken for credit two times. Prerequisites:department approval required.

HIGR 210. Historical Scholarship on Modern Chinese History (4)

This course will introduce students to the monographic literature and the main historiographic controversies of modern Chinese history.

HIGR 211. Historical Scholarship on Modern Japanese History (4)

This course will introduce students to the monographic literature and the main historiographic controversies of modern Japanese history.

HIGR 212. Historical Scholarship on Modern East Asian History (4)

This course will introduce students to the monographic literature and the main historiographic controversies of modern East Asian history.

HIGR 214. Historical Scholarship on Modern Korean History (4)

This course will introduce students to the monographic literature and the main historiographic controversies of modern Korean history.

HIGR 215A-B. Research Seminar in Modern Chinese History (4-4)

A two-quarter research seminar in Chinese history. A paper, based on original research, will be due in the second quarter. Seminar topics will vary. Reading knowledge of Chinese is expected. An IP grade will be awarded at the end of the first quarter. Final grade will not be given until the end of the second quarter. Prerequisites: 215A is a prerequisite for 215B.

HIGR 216A-B. Research Seminar in Modern Japanese History (4-4)

A two-quarter research seminar in Japanese history. A paper, based on original research, will be due in the second quarter. Seminar topics will vary. Reading knowledge of Japanese is expected. An IP grade will be awarded at the end of the first quarter. Final grade will not be given until the end of the second quarter. Prerequisites: 216A is a prerequisite for 216B.

HIGR 217A. Historical Scholarship on Premodern Chinese History I (4)

Chinese history from ancient foundations through the Qing fall. Primary and secondary readings on key developments in state and society, the classics, and the three major religions, including new scholarship. Assignments are both analytical and teaching-oriented. Courses in the HIGR 217 A-B-C series may be taken out of sequence.

HIGR 217B. Historical Scholarship on Premodern Chinese History II (4)

Chinese history from ancient foundations through the Qing fall. Primary and secondary readings on key developments in state and society, the classics, and the three major religions, including new scholarship. Assignments are both analytical and teaching-oriented. Courses in the HIGR 217 A-B-C series may be taken out of sequence.

HIGR 217C. Historical Scholarship on Premodern Chinese History III (4)

Chinese history from ancient foundations through the Qing fall. Primary and secondary readings on key developments in state and society, the classics, and the three major religions, including new scholarship. Assignments are both analytical and teaching-oriented. Courses in the HIGR 217 A-B-C series may be taken out of sequence.

HIGR 218A. Graduate Seminar in Premodern Chinese History (4)

Course subject varies among periods before 1900. Course includes secondary scholarship studies for content, method, and structure research methods and resources and development of the research topic. May be taken for credit up to three times. Both HIGR 218A-B must be completed before a final grade can be assigned.

HIGR 218B. Graduate Seminar in Premodern Chinese History (4)

Course subject varies among periods before 1900. In this course, students will write an original research paper using primary sources. May be taken for credit up to three times. Both HIGR 218A-B must be completed before a final grade can be assigned.

HIGR 219A-B. Research Seminar in Modern Korean History (4-4)

A two-quarter research seminar in Korean history. A paper, based on original research, will be due in HIGR 219B. Seminar topics will vary.

HIGR 220. Historical Scholarship on European History, 1500� (4)

Introduction to the historiography on Renaissance, Reformation, and early modern Europe: an overview of methodologies with emphasis on sources and critical approaches. Required for all beginning European history graduate students.

HIGR 221. Historical Scholarship on European History, 1715� (4)

Selected topics in European history from the early modern to the modern era. Readings and discussions focus on issues of methodology and interpretation. Required for all beginning European history graduate students.

HIGR 222. Historical Scholarship on European History, since 1850 (4)

Critical evaluation of selected topics in the period of modern Europe from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Required for all beginning European history graduate students.

HIGR 223A-B. Research Seminar in Medieval History (4-4)

Research seminar in medieval history with selected topics in medieval history.

HIGR 224. Readings in Twentieth-Century German History (4)

An introduction to the historiography and major debates in modern German history from the Wilhelmine period to the present. Readings and discussion focus on the critical evaluation of sources, methodologies, and shifting interpretations of Germany’s volatile transition to modernity.

HIGR 225. Readings in Modern Russian History (4)

Students will read major works on revolutionary Russian and Soviet history. Attention will be paid to both classic and revisionist works.

HIGR 226. Readings in Modern Spanish History (4)

An introduction to the historiography and major debates in modern Spanish history, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Readings and discussion of both English and Spanish language scholarship will explore different aspects of Spain’s political, economic, social, and cultural transformation in the modern period.

HIGR 227A-B. Seminar in Spanish History (4-4)

Readings and critical analysis of selected topics and important works in the history of Spain. May be repeated as content changes. Proficiency in Spanish required to repeat course, but not for first time taken. An IP grade will be awarded at the end of the first quarter. Final grade will not be given until the end of the second quarter.

HIGR 228. Historical Scholarship on Greece and the Balkans, 1768� (4)

Critical evaluation of selected topics on Greece and the Balkans during the late Ottoman period (1768�). Attention will be paid to both classic and revisionist works. May be taken for credit three times.

HIGR 229. Historical Scholarship on Greece and the Balkans, 1923� (4)

Critical evaluation of selected topics on Greece and the Balkans during the twentieth century. Attention will be paid to both classic and revisionist works. May be taken for credit three times.

HIGR 230A-B. Research Seminar in European History (4-4)

A two-quarter research seminar in European history. A paper, based on original research, will be due in the second quarter. An IP grade will be awarded at the end of the first quarter. Final grade will not be given until the end of the second quarter. May be taken for credit three times. Prerequisites: 230A is a prerequisite for 230B.

HIGR 234. Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology: New Perspectives (4)

This graduate seminar examines the archaeology of the eastern Mediterranean world from the Neolithic through Ottoman times. The seminar is thematically organized examining current methods and theories that apply to state-of-the-art research in one of the “foundational” culture-historical regions in the world. Topics may include archaeometry, archaeometallurgy, colonization, dating methods, settlement patterns and survey methodology, paleoclimate reconstruction, and geoarchaeology. Students may not receive credit for HIGR 234 and ANTH 207.

HIGR 236A-B. Research Seminar in History of Science (4-4)

A two-quarter research seminar comprising intensive study of a specific topic in the history of science. The first quarter will be devoted to readings and discussions the second chiefly to the writing of individual research papers. Topics vary from year to year, and students may therefore repeat the course for credit. An IP grade will be awarded at the end of the first quarter. Final grade will not be given until the end of the second quarter.

HIGR 238. Introduction to Science Studies (4)

Cross-listed as Communication 225A, Philosophy 209A, and Sociology 255A. Study and discussion of classic work in history of science, sociology of science and philosophy of science, and of work that attempts to develop a unified science studies approach. Required for all students in the Science Studies Program. Prerequisites: enrollment in Science Studies Program.

HIGR 239. Seminar in Science Studies (4)

Cross-listed as Communication 225B, Philosophy 209B, and Sociology 255B. Study and discussion of selected topics in the science studies field. Required for all students in the Science Studies Program. May be repeated as course content changes annually. Prerequisites: enrollment in Science Studies Program.

HIGR 240. Colloquium in Science Studies (4)

Cross-listed as Communication 225C, Philosophy 209C, and Sociology 255C. A forum for the presentation and discussion of research in progress in science studies, by graduate students, faculty, and visitors. Required for all students in the Science Studies Program. May be repeated as course content changes annually. Prerequisites: enrollment in the Science Studies Program.

HIGR 241. Advanced Approaches to Science Studies (4)

Cross-listed as COGR 225D, PHIL 209D, SOCG 255D. Focus on recent literature in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science, technology, and medicine. Required of all students in the Science Studies Program. Prerequisites: HIGR 238 is a prerequisite for HIGR 241 enrollment in Science Studies Program or instructor’s permission.

HIGR 244. Introduction to Sound Studies (4)

Study and discussion of classic and recent scholarship on sound production and cultures of listening. Emphasizes historical literature but also includes works in literary studies, art history, music, and other fields. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

HIGR 245. Revolution, Empire, and State Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean (4)

This seminar traces the history of revolution and repression in modern Latin America and the Caribbean. We will spend one to two weeks on each of the following revolutions: Haiti (1791), Mexico (1910), Cuba (1959), and Central America (1970s󈞼s).

HIGR 247A-B. Research Seminar in Colonial Latin America (4-4)

A two-quarter course involving readings and research on sixteenth- through eighteenth-century Latin America. Students are expected to compose a paper based on original research that is due in the second quarter. Reading knowledge of Spanish required. An IP grade will be awarded at the end of the first quarter. Final grade will not be given until the end of the second quarter.

HIGR 248A-B. Research Seminar in Latin America, National Period (4-4)

A two-quarter course involving readings and research the first quarter is devoted to the nineteenth and the second quarter to the twentieth century. Students are expected to compose a paper based on original research that is due in the second quarter. An IP grade will be awarded at the end of the first quarter. Final grade will not be given until the end of the second quarter. Reading knowledge of Spanish and/or Portuguese is helpful but not required.

HIGR 249. Topics in Colonial Latin America (4)

One or two topics in colonial history will be analyzed in depth reading knowledge of Spanish is expected.

HIGR 252. History, Social Evolution, and Intellectuals in the Andes: Mariátegui, Haya de la Torre, and Arguedas (4)

The course will study three major twentieth-century interpreters of Andean history and society. Mariátegui is Latin America’s most original socialist intellectual Haya de la Torre is the founder of Peru’s most important party and Arguedas was the most profound interpreter of the role of Indian peasants in the Andean nations.

HIGR 254. Historical Scholarship in Ancient History (4)

Introduction to the bibliography, methodology, and ancillary disciplines for the study of ancient history together with readings and discussion on selected topics within the field. May be taken for credit three times.

HIGR 255. Readings in Ancient Greek History (4)

An in-depth examination of selected topics in ancient Greek history. May be taken for credit three times.

HIGR 256. Readings in Ancient Roman History (4)

An in-depth examination of original readings written in the Roman period. Topics will vary. May be taken for credit three times.

HIGR 258. Historical Scholarship in Medieval History (4)

Introduction to the bibliography, methodology, and ancillary disciplines for the study of medieval history together with readings and discussion on selected topics within the field. May be taken for credit three times.

HIGR 259. Special Topics in Ancient History (4)

Readings in modern scholarship concerning ancient Greek or Roman history. Topics will vary. May be taken for credit six times.

HIGR 260A-B. Research Seminar in Ancient History (4-4)

Research seminar in ancient history. Selected topics in ancient Greek and Roman history. The second course in the IP sequence will be devoted to the presentation, discussion, and evaluation of the work in progress.

HIGR 264. Topics in Pre-Islamic Jewish History (4)

An in-depth examination of selected topics in the history of Jewish people and Jewish civilizations in pre-Islamic times.

HIGR 265A-B-C. Historical Scholarship on American History (4-4-4)

A three-quarter sequence of readings and discussions on the bibliographical and monographic literature of American history from the colonial period to the present. Taught by different members of the staff each quarter, the course is required of all beginning graduate students in American history.

HIGR 267A-B. Research Seminar in United States History (4-4)

Readings and discussion in selected areas of American history for advanced graduate students. An IP (in progress) grade will be awarded the first quarter. The second quarter will be devoted to the presentation, discussion, and evaluation of work in progress. A final grade will be awarded at the end of the second quarter. Prerequisites: 267A is a prerequisite for 267B.

HIGR 274A. Historical Scholarship on the Early Modern Middle East (4)

Historiography of the late medieval and early modern Middle East, focusing specifically on the Ottoman Empire. Prerequisites: department approval required. Courses in the HIGR 274A-B-C series may be taken out of sequence.

HIGR 274B. Historical Scholarship on Modern Middle East, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (4)

Readings in the historiographical literature on the late Ottoman Empire and Turkey. Prerequisites: department approval required. Courses in the HIGR 274A-B-C series may be taken out of sequence.

HIGR 274C. Historical Scholarship on Modern Middle East, Colonial, National, and Postcolonial Eras (4)

Examines the themes and historiography of Arab nationalism and the colonial and postcolonial Arab East from about 1918 to 1950. We will read several generations of historical works on the region and period, starting with memoirs. Prerequisites: department approval required. Courses in the HIGR 274A-B-C series may be taken out of sequence.

HIGR 275A-B. Research Seminar in Middle Eastern History (4-4)

A two-quarter research seminar in Middle Eastern history. Seminar topics will vary. Reading knowledge of Arabic or Turkish is expected. A paper, based on original research, will be due at the end of the second quarter. Final grade will not be given until the end of the second quarter. Prerequisites: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

HIGR 280. Global History: Approaches to the Early Modern Era (4)

Introduction to methods, theories, and critiques of writing early modern global/world history. It seeks to familiarize students with the main historiographical debates and defining narratives about the first phase of intensifying global connectivity that commenced in the fifteenth century. May be taken for credit three times. Prerequisites:graduate standing and department stamp.

HIGR 281. Global History: Approaches to the Modern Era (4)

Introduction to methods, theories, and critiques of writing global/world history in the modern era. Will survey how scholars of diverse disciplinary backgrounds have analyzed global change since the nineteenth century. It assesses the methodological and theoretical contributions of several analysts, the concepts through which they have explained and typified modes of interaction across global space, and the problems posed by studying connectivity. May be taken for credit three times. Prerequisites:graduate standing and department stamp.

HIGR 282. Topics in Global History (4)

An in-depth survey of selected topics in global history. Topics will vary from year to year. May be taken for credit up to four times.

HIGR 295. Thesis Seminar (4)

For students advanced to candidacy to the doctorate. Discussion, criticism, and revision of drafts of chapters of theses and of work to be submitted for publication.

HIGR 298. Directed Reading (1󈝸)

Guided and supervised reading in the literature of the several fields of history. This course may be repeated for an indefinite number of times due to the independent nature of the content of the course. (S/U grades permitted.)

HIGR 299. PhD Thesis Direction (1󈝸)

Independent work by graduate students engaged in research and writing of doctoral theses. This course may be repeated for an indefinite number of times due to the independent nature of thesis writing and research. (S/U grades only.)

HIGR 500. Apprentice Teaching in History (1𔃂)

A course in which teaching assistants are aided in learning proper teaching methods by means of supervision of their work by the faculty: handling of discussions, preparation and grading of examinations and other written exercises, and student relations. (S/U grades only.)

HIGR 502. Apprentice Teaching in Culture, Art, and Technology (CAT) (4)

Consideration and development of pedagogical methods appropriate to undergraduate teaching in the interdisciplinary Sixth College core sequence: Culture, Art, and Technology. Supervised by the core program faculty, director, and associate directors for the Writing and Thematic Programs.

HIGR 505. Apprentice Teaching in Jewish Studies (4)

Teaching assistant for lower-level Hebrew courses, JWSP 1, 2, 3. Must teach four or six sections and grade assignments.

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