Frank B. Kellogg

Frank B. Kellogg


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Frank Billings Kellogg was born in Potsdam, New York on December 22, 1856. Paul, where as a member of the law firm of Davis, Kellogg and Severance he represented mining and railroad concerns.Later he was a special counsel for the United States government in its cases against the Standard Oil Company, the paper trust, and several railroads. His stature was such that in 1912 he was elected president of the American Bar Association.Kellogg entered public service in 1916 when he was elected to the United States Senate, where he served one full term. He was one of the few Republicans who supported ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. In 1924, President Coolidge appointed him ambassador to Great Britain, and then to the cabinet in 1925 as secretary of state.Kellogg achieved some success in Latin American relations, improving relations with Mexico and helping settle the long-running Tacna-Arica dispute between Peru and Chile. However, he is best remembered for the part he played in the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which outlawed war as an instrument of national policy by its signatories. For this achievement, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1929.Between 1930 and 1935, he served on the Permanent Court of International Justice at the Hague. Paul, Minnesota, on December 21, 1937.


Frank B. Kellogg

Frank Billings Kellogg (22. desember 1856 – 21. desember 1937) var bandarískur stjórnmálamaður úr Repúblikanaflokknum sem var utanríkisráðherra Bandaríkjanna frá 1925 til 1929, á forsetatíðum Calvins Coolidge og Herberts Hoover. Kellogg hlaut friðarverðlaun Nóbels árið 1929 fyrir að standa ásamt franska utanríkisráðherranum Aristide Briand fyrir samningu Kellogg-Briand-sáttmálans, sem gerði stríð ólöglegt samkvæmt alþjóðalögum.

Frank B. Kellogg
Utanríkisráðherra Bandaríkjanna
Í embætti
5. mars 1925 – 28. mars 1929
Öldungadeildarþingmaður fyrir Minnesota
Í embætti
4. mars 1917 – 3. mars 1923
Persónulegar upplýsingar
Fæddur22. desember 1856
Potsdam, New York, Bandaríkjunum
Látinn21. desember 1937 (80 ára) St. Paul, Minnesota, Bandaríkjunum
ÞjóðerniBandarískur
StjórnmálaflokkurRepúblikanaflokkurinn
MakiClara Cook
AtvinnaStjórnmálamaður
Verðlaun Friðarverðlaun Nóbels (1929)
Undirskrift

Frank Billings Kellogg var kominn úr fátækri bændafjölskyldu. Faðir hans flutti með fjölskylduna til Minnesota þegar Frank var barn að aldri. Kellogg vann á bóndabæ fjölskyldu sinnar á unga aldri og hlaut litla sem enga formlega skólamenntun. Nítján ára gamall fékk hann vinnu við ræstingar á lögmannsskrifstofu. Samhliða vinnunni menntaði hann sig sjálfur í lögfræði og náði að endingu málaflutningsprófi án þess að hafa nokkurn tímann stundað laganám í skóla. [1]

Árið 1905 réð Theodore Roosevelt Bandaríkjaforseti Kellogg sem saksóknara í ýmsum dómsmálum gegn einokunarhringjum. [2] Mikilvægasta mál Kelloggs sem saksóknara var hæstaréttarmálið Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, 221 U.S. 1 (1911) þar sem Hæstiréttur Bandaríkjanna komst að þeirri niðurstöðu að olíufyrirtæki Johns D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, væri ólöglegur einokunarhringur sem bæri að brjóta upp.

Árið 1917 var Kellogg kjörinn á öldungadeild Bandaríkjaþings sem frambjóðandi Repúblikana í Minnesota. Kellogg hafði haft orð á sér fyrir róttækni en þegar á þing var komið þótti hann ívið íhaldssamari en von var á og því tapaði hann brátt trausti bænda í heimafylkinu. Kellogg tapaði endurkjöri á öldungadeildina árið 1923. [1]

Árið 1924 varð Kellogg sendiherra Bandaríkjamanna í London en ári síðar var hann kallaður heim og útnefndur utanríkisráðherra í ríkisstjórn Calvins Coolidge Bandaríkjaforseta. Sem utanríkisráðherra átti Kellogg oft í deilum við Breta vegna andstæðra hugmynda ríkjanna um olíuvinnslu í heiminum. Bandaríkin voru á þessum tíma ágeng á olíulindir í Níkaragva og Panama og náðu þar meiri tangarhaldi á olíuvinnslunni en Bretum þótti ráðlegt. Bretar brugðust við með því að gera leynilegan flotasamning við Frakka sem misbauð Bandaríkjunum mjög. Þegar Kellogg sigldi til Evrópu í samningaerindum lýsti hann yfir vanþóknun sinni á Bretum með því að fara frá borði í Írlandi til þess að þurfa ekki að koma til Englands. [1]

Merkasta afrek Kelloggs í embætti utanríkisráðherra var undirritun Kellogg-Briand-sáttmálans árið 1928. Sáttmálinn var kenndur við Kellogg og franska utanríkisráðherrann Aristide Briand og í honum stóð að samningsaðilar „[fordæmdu] það, að leysa milliríkjadeilur með styrjöld, og að þeir afsali sér rétti til að beita ófriði í þarfir stjórnmála lands síns“. [3] Þrátt fyrir fögur fyrirheit tókst ekki með sáttmálanum að draga úr aukinni hernaðarhyggju á fjórða áratugnum sem leiddi að endingu til seinni heimsstyrjaldarinnar. Þar sem sáttmálanum fylgdu engin viðurlög eða refsiákvæði fyrir samningsbrot hefur hann í seinni tíð almennt þótt marklaus og hefur að mestu hlotið slæm eftirmæli. [4]

Kellogg sagði af sér sem utanríkisráðherra stuttu eftir að Herbert Hoover varð forseti árið 1929 og sneri sér aftur að málaflutningsstörfum. Hann var sæmdur friðarverðlaunum Nóbels árið 1929 fyrir að standa að gerð Kellogg-Briand-sáttmálans. Árið 1930 var Kellogg útnefndur dómari við Alþjóðadómstólinn í Haag og gegndi þeirri stöðu í fimm ár. [1]


Frank B. Kellogg

Frank Billings Kellogg (* 22 decembrie 1856 – † 21 decembrie 1937) a fost un politician și om de stat american. S-a născut la Potsdam, New York. Familia sa s-a mutat în Minnesota în 1865. După ce a obținut licența în drept, a început să practice avocatura în Rochester, Minnesota, în 1877. A fost avocatul statului în Rochester (1878 – 1881) și avocat al comitatului Olmsted (1882 – 1887). S-a mutat în St. Paul, Minnesota în 1887.

Kellogg a fost ales senator al Statelor Unite pe listele Partidului Republican din parte statului Minnesota în 1916. A îndeplinit funcția de senator din 4 martie 1917 până pe 3 martie 1923. A pierdut votul de realegere în 1922. A fost delegat al Conferința Internațională a Statelor Americane din Santiago de Chile în 1923, iar între 1923 și 1925 a fost Ambasador Extraordinar și Plenipotențiar al SUA în Regatul Unit.

Între anii 1925 și 1929 a fost Secretar de Stat al Statelor Unite în cabinetul Președintelui Calvin Coolidge. În 1928 a fost decorat cu ordinul Freedom of the City în Dublin, Irlanda și, în 1929, guvernul francez l-a făcut membru al Legiunii de Onoare.

În perioada în care a fost Secretar de Stat a devenit coautor al Pactului Kellogg-Briand, semnat în 1928. Tratatul, propus de ministrul francez de externe Aristide Briand, dorea să legifereze "renunțarea la război ca instrument al politicii naționale." Frank Billings Kellogg a primit Premiul Nobel pentru Pace în 1929.

Din 1930 până în 1935 a fost judecător asociat al Curții Permanente pentru Drept Internațional. A murit cu o zi mai înaine de a împlini 81 de ani, în orașul St. Paul. Locuința sa a fost decretată casă memorială. În cinstea politicianului american, școlile primare din Shoreline, Washington și Rochester, Minnesota au primit numele său.


Biography

Frank Billings Kellogg was born in Potsdam, New York in 1856, and his family moved to Minnesota in 1865. He began practicing law in Rochester in 1877, and he prosecuted a federal antitrust case for President Theodore B. Roosevelt during the 1900s. From 1917 to 1923, Kellogg served in the US Senate, and he served as Secretary of State from 1925 to 1929. In 1928, he concluded the Kellogg-Briand Pact with French foreign minister Aristide Briand, attempting to outlaw war. He was awarded the 1929 Nobel Peace Prize, and he died in 1937.


After Frank Kellogg's family relocated to Minnesota in 1865, he began training himself to practice law in 1877. The following year, Kellogg was appointed to serve as the Rochester attorney. This is a post he held from 1978 to 1881. After this, he went on to represent the county of Olmsted, Minnesota for five years. He took this post in 1882 ending his term in 1887.

Years later, in 1905 Kellogg became a part of the federal government. This was after Theodore Roosevelt asked him to prosecute a case that was related to the government. The following year, he was chosen to serve at the Interstate Commerce Commission as one of its special counsel. Two years later, he was again appointed to take the lead in the government prosecution against the Union Pacific Railroad that was under the Sherman Antitrust Act.

During his entire career as an attorney, Kellogg is to be remembered for the Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States case. This case brought him high acclaim. Accordingly, he was later chosen to serve as the American Bar Association&rsquos president for one year. He took this role in 1912 before he was succeeded in 1913.


Frank B. Kellogg - History

Frank B. Kellogg

Frank Billings Kellogg (December 22, 1856 – December 21, 1937) was an American lawyer, politician, and statesman who served in the U.S. Senate and as U.S. Secretary of State. He co-authored the Kellogg–Briand Pact, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1929.

Birth and Death Data: Born December 22nd, 1856 (Potsdam), Died December 21st, 1937 (Saint Paul)

Date Range of DAHR Recordings: 1927

Roles Represented in DAHR: speaker

Recordings

Company Matrix No. Size First Recording Date Title Primary Performer Description Role Audio
Victor CVE-38287 12-in. 6/11/1927 Press Club speeches [Part 3] Graham McNamee Special event radio broadcast speaker
Victor CVE-38288 12-in. 6/11/1927 Press Club speeches [Part 4] Graham McNamee Special event radio broadcast speaker
Victor CVE-38289 12-in. 6/11/1927 Press Club speeches [Part 5] Graham McNamee Special event radio broadcast speaker
Victor CVE-38294 12-in. 6/11/1927 Press Club speeches [Part 1] Graham McNamee Special event radio broadcast speaker
Victor CVE-38295 12-in. 6/11/1927 Press Club speeches [Part 2] Graham McNamee Special event radio broadcast speaker

Citation

Discography of American Historical Recordings, s.v. "Kellogg, Frank B.," accessed June 27, 2021, https://adp.library.ucsb.edu/names/105371.

Kellogg, Frank B.. (2021). In Discography of American Historical Recordings. Retrieved June 27, 2021, from https://adp.library.ucsb.edu/names/105371.

"Kellogg, Frank B.." Discography of American Historical Recordings. UC Santa Barbara Library, 2021. Web. 27 June 2021.


--> Kellogg, Frank B. (Frank Billings), 1856-1937

Lawyer and politician Frank Billings Kellogg was born in New York, and raised in Minnesota. He studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began a long career in public service as city attorney of Rochester, Minnesota. He served as president of the American Bar Association, and as United States Senator from Minnesota and Ambassador to Great Britain. While serving as Calvin Coolidge's Secretary of State, he co-authored the Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact, also known as the Pact of Paris, outlawing war and resolving to find peaceful resolutions to conflicts between nations. Although the pact was eventually ratified by some sixty-two nations, it failed to prevent the outbreak of war in the 1930s. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1929.

From the description of Frank B. Kellogg letters, 1928-1929. (Pennsylvania State University Libraries). WorldCat record id: 64582035

Frank Billings Kellogg was born in Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York on December 22, 1856. He moved with his parents to Minnesota in 1865 and studied law in Rochester, Minnesota, where he was admitted to the bar in 1877, becoming the city attorney of Rochester from 1878-1881 and county attorney for Olmsted county 1882-1887. In 1887 he moved to St. Paul, Minnesota and became a member of the Republican National Committee 1904-1912, and president of the American Bar Association in 1912 and 1913.

Kellogg was elected to the United States Senate in March of 1917 and served until March of 1923. After being appointed in 1922 by Warren G. Harding to be the United States delegate to the Fifth International Conference of American States, held in Santiago, Chile, Kellogg was then appointed United States ambassador to Great Britain by President Coolidge, a position he served until 1925. From 1925-1929 Kellogg was Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President Coolidge, coauthoring the Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact signed in 1928. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1929 and served as an associate judge of the Permanent Court for International Justice from 1930-1935. Kellogg died in St. Paul, Minnesota on December 21, 1937.

Information from The Frank B. Kellogg Papers. Edited by Deborah Kahn Neubeck. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1977-1978. Microfilm: 54 reels and guide.

  • 1856 : Born December 22 in Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York, the eldest of three children of Asa Farnsworth Kellogg and Abigail Billings Kellogg. Asa Kellogg also had a son by a first marriage.
  • 1857 : Family moved to Long Lake, Hamilton County, New York.
  • 1865 : Family moved to a small farm near Viola, Olmsted County, Minnesota.
  • 1870 : Assumed primary responsibility for working the family farm because of his father's poor health. Could no longer attend school received no additional formal education.
  • 1872 : Family moved to a larger farm in Olmsted County near Elgin, Wabasha County, Minnesota.
  • 1875 : Left the family farm. Moved to Rochester, Olmsted County, Minnesota, to read law in the office of Halftan A. Eckholdt, in exchange for doing chores and errands. Supported himself by working on nearby farms, either for room and board or for a small salary.
  • 1877 : Admitted to the Minnesota bar. Began to practice law in Rochester.
  • 1878 : Formed law partnership with Burt W. Eaton, also a self-taught lawyer. Appointed Rochester city attorney by the city council. A Republican, served until 1881, when defeated for re-election by his Democratic opponent.
  • 1881 : Elected Olmsted County attorney on the Republican ticket. Served until 1887.
  • 1884 : In first important legal case, agreed to represent two Wabasha County townships, Plainview and Elgin, in a lawsuit against the Winona and St. Peter Railroad Company. Prior to accepting the case and during the course of the litigation sought the advice of his cousin, Cushman K. Davis, former governor of Minnesota and prominent St. Paul attorney.
  • 1886 : Married Clara M. Cook of Rochester on June 16. They had no children. Unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for Minnesota attorney general. Accepted invitation to join the St. Paul law firm of Davis, newly elected U.S. senator from Minnesota, and Cordenio A. Severance.
  • 1887 : Law firm of Davis, Kellogg, and Severance established with Kellogg as acting head. During the next thirty years the firm became one of the most prominent and successful corporate law firms in the Upper Midwest, representing many powerful companies and individuals. Formed lasting relationships with some of the country's most influential businessmen and politicians.
  • 1901 : Became senior partner in the law firm after the death of Davis in 1900.
  • 1904 : Minnesota delegate to the Republican National Convention. Elected Republican national committeeman from Minnesota. Served 1904-1912, [post-1916?]-1920. U.S. delegate to the Universal Congress of Lawyers and Jurists, held in St. Louis, Missouri.
  • 1905 : Appointed special assistant attorney general to prosecute the federal government's case against the General Paper Company of Wisconsin and Minnesota (the so-called Western Paper Trust) for alleged violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Served until 1906, when the company was declared illegal and dissolved as a combination in restraint of trade. Received widespread attention in the press as a trust-buster.
  • 1906 : With Severance, appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt as special counsel to the Interstate Commerce Commission for its investigation of Edward H. Harriman's financial manipulations and railroad consolidations, particularly of the Union Pacific, Southern Pacific, and subsidiary railroads. Served until 1908. Appointed special assistant attorney general to lead the federal government's prosecution of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey under the Sherman Antitrust Act. Served until 1911.
  • 1908 : With Severance, appointed special assistant attorney general to prosecute the federal government's suit against the Union Pacific Railroad under the Sherman Antitrust Act. Served until 1912. Minnesota delegate to the Republican National Convention.
  • 1911 : U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the government in the Standard Oil case. The so-called Standard Oil Trust ordered dissolved Kellogg hailed as the nation's number one trust-buster.
  • 1912 : U.S. Supreme Court decided the Union Pacific case in favor of the government. Elected president of the American Bar Association for 1912-1913. Minnesota delegate to the Republican National Convention. Walked out of the convention with the rest of the Minnesota delegation in support of Theodore Roosevelt. Did not join the Progressive party instead, worked to restore unity in the Republican party.
  • 1916 : After initially declining to become a candidate, elected to the U.S. Senate on the Republican ticket, the first senator from Minnesota to be elected by popular vote. Served 1917-1923 (65th-67th Congresses). Campaigned on a platform of war preparedness, economy in government, prosecution of the trusts, and tariff reduction. As senator, primarily concerned with issues relating to his committee assignments (Judiciary, Interstate Commerce, National Banks, Public Lands, Joint Committee for Revision of the Federal Statutes, Foreign Relations) and with agriculture.
  • 1920 : Minnesota delegate to the Republican Convention.
  • 1922 : Defeated for re-election to the Senate by Henrik Shipstead, Minnesota Farmer-Labor party candidate.
  • 1923 : U.S. delegate to the Fifth International Conference of American States, held in Santiago, Chile (appointed in 1922 by President Warren G. Harding.) Briefly rejoined law firm in St. Paul. Appointed U.S. ambassador to Great Britain by President Coolidge. Served until 1925.
  • 1924 : While ambassador, served as one of two American delegates to the London Reparation Conference, which negotiated the Dawes Plan to revise the schedule of World War I reparations payments by Germany to the Allies.
  • 1925 : While ambassador, represented the United States at the Conference of Finance Ministers, held in Paris, which agreed on the distribution of reparations payments by Germany to the Allies. Assumed the office of secretary of state in Coolidge's cabinet. Served until 1929. Primarily concerned with Latin American problems, including U.S. relations with Mexico and Nicaragua and the Tacna-Arica boundary dispute between Chile and Peru revision of American policies toward China, particularly with respect to tariffs and extraterritoriality privileges American relations with Canada and the St. Lawrence waterway project settlement of World War I debts disarmament negotiation of international arbitration and conciliation agreements U.S. participation in the World Court and negotiation of the Pact of Paris.
  • 1928 : Signed the Pact of Paris August 27.
  • 1929 : Rejoined law firm in St. Paul.
  • 1930 : Elected to a nine-year term as judge of the World Court. Served until 1935, resigning because of ill health. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 1929 for his work in negotiating the Pact of Paris.
  • 1937 : Died in St. Paul December 21.

From the guide to the Frank B. Kellogg papers., 1880-1942 [bulk 1890-1937]., (Minnesota Historical Society)


Frank B. Kellogg

Rođen u saveznoj državi New York, Kellogg se s obitelji 1865. godine seli u Minnesotu. Nakon završenog pravnog studija, 1877. polaže pravosudni ispit i postaje advokat u Rochesteru, Minnesota. Unatoč studiju, Kellogg je bio samouki advokat koji se proslavio zastupajući Državu u antitrustovskim slučajevima. Njegov najvažniji slučaj bio je Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States, 221 U.S. 1 (1911.). U periodu od 1912. do 1913., bio je predsjednik odvjetničke komore.

Kao član Republikanske stranke, Kellogg je 1916. izabran za senatora iz Minnesote, a mandat je služio od 4. ožujka 1917. do 4. ožujka 1923. godine. Tijekom žustre debate oko ratifikacije Versajskog sporazuma, Kellogg je bio jedan od rijetkih republikanaca koji je podržao sporazum. Od 1923. do 1925. služio je kao veleposlanik u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu.

Dana 5. ožujka 1925., predsjednik Calvin Coolidge imenovao ga je Državnim tajnikom. Iako je u tom svojstvu slijedio izolacionističku politiku po pitanju europskih pitanja, pomogao je u organiziranju konferencije o ograničavanju pomorskog naoružanja u Ženevi, 1927. godine. Također, pomogao je u poboljšanju odnosa Sjedinjenih Država i Meksika te je zaslužan za razrješenje dugogodišnje teritorijalne razmirice između Čilea i Perua. Ipak, njegov svakako najvažniji doprinos međunarodnoj politici je Briand-Kelloggov pakt iz 1928. godine. Naime, francuski ministar vanjskih poslova, Aristide Briand, formirao je tokom 1928. godine ideju o bilateralnom paktu sa Sjedinjenim Državama kojim bi rat bio proglašen nezakonitim sredstvom u međunarodnim odnosima. Nakon primitka prijedloga, Kellogg je mjesecima odgađao davanje odgovora. Ipak, potaknut glasnim pokretom za "delegalizaciju rata", Kellogg je uspio ispregovarati da se pakt s dvije proširi na čak 62 zemlje, sve velike sile. Kada je potpisan, pakt je slavljen diljem svijeta, a Kellogg je sljedeće godine nagrađen Nobelom za mir, no on je ipak bio tek privremeno rješenje čiji su se nedostaci, nažalost, pokazali vrlo brzo.

Dana 28. rujna 1925., Kellogg se našao na naslovnici časopisa Time.

Kellogg je ostao Državni tajnik tokom prvih dana mandata Herberta Hoovera, kada ga je zamijenio Henry L. Stimson. Od 1930. do 1935. bio je sudac pri Stalnom sudu međunarodne pravde.

Preminuo je 21. prosinca 1937., dan prije svog 81. rođendana, u St. Paulu od posljedica pneumonije i moždanog udara.


Frank B. Kellogg - History

In 1936, eight Princeton undergraduates formed the Veterans of Future Wars (VFW). The organization demanded a bonus of $1,000 for every man between the ages of 18 and 36--payable immediately so that they could enjoy it before being forced to fight the "next war." A women's auxiliary, the Future Gold Star Mothers, demanded government pensions for women so that they could afford to visit their son's graves in Europe.

World War I left the public suspicious of foreign crusades. Americans wanted to retreat from foreign affairs. "The people have had all the war, all the taxation, and all the military service they want," declared President Calvin Coolidge in 1925. During the 1920s, the United States tried to promote world peace through diplomatic means.

In 1921, representatives from nine Asian and European nations met in Washington to discuss ways to ease tensions in the Pacific. The conference resulted in a 10-year moratorium on the construction of battleships and an agreement that for every five naval vessels owned by the United States or Britain, Japan could have three ships, and France and Italy could own one and three-fourths ships.

In 1928, the French foreign minister, Aristide Briand, and Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg attempted to outlaw war. The Kellogg-Briand Pact, which was eventually signed by 62 nations, renounced war as an instrument for resolving international disputes. The Kellogg-Briand Pact lacked an enforcement mechanism. Cynics said the treaty had all the legal force of an "international kiss."

Isolationism During the 1930s

During the Great Depression isolationist sentiment surged. In 1935, some 150,000 college students participated in a nationwide Student Strike for Peace, and half a million signed pledges saying that they would refuse to serve in the event of war. A public opinion poll indicated that 39 percent of college students would refuse to participate in any war, even if the country was invaded.

Anti-war sentiment was not confined to undergraduates. Disillusionment over World War I fed opposition to foreign entanglements. "We didn't win a thing we set out for in the last war," said Senator Gerald Nye of North Dakota. "We merely succeeded, with tremendous loss of life, to make secure the loans of private bankers to the Allies." The overwhelming majority of Americans agreed an opinion poll in 1935 found that 70 percent of Americans believed that intervention in World War I had been a mistake.

Isolationist ideas spread through American popular culture during the mid-1930s. The Book of the Month Club featured a volume titled Merchants of Death, which contended that the United States had been drawn into the European war by international arms manufacturers who had deliberately fomented conflict in order to market their products. From 1934 to 1936, a congressional committee, chaired by Senator Nye, investigated charges that false Allied propaganda and unscrupulous Wall Street bankers had dragged Americans into the European war. In April 1935--the 18th anniversary of American entry into World War I--50,000 veterans held a peace march in Washington, D.C.

Between 1935 and 1937, Congress passed three separate neutrality laws that clamped an embargo on arms sales to belligerents, forbade American ships from entering war zones and prohibited them from being armed, and barred Americans from traveling on belligerent ships. Clearly, Congress was determined not to repeat what it regarded as the mistakes that had plunged the United States into World War I.

By 1938, however, pacifist sentiment was fading. A rapidly modernizing Japan was seeking to acquire raw materials and territory on the Asian mainland a revived Germany was rebuilding its military power and acquiring land bloodlessly on its eastern borders and Italy was trying to restore Roman glory through military might.


Nobel Notable of Laureate Park: Frank B. Kellogg

This is the second in a periodic series of articles that celebrate the lives of the Nobel Prize laureates whose names grace the 100 streets of Laureate Park. These laureates are extraordinary men and women – many of whom are alive today – who through their lifetime achievements have made our daily lives immeasurably richer, often in ways not readily evident. Through these articles we hope to introduce you to these exceptional individuals and encourage you, perhaps, to learn more about them.

In Laureate Park is Kellogg Avenue, whose residents may be forgiven if they associate this name with Frosted Flakes, Special K or Battle Creek, Mich. Certainly, the family name “Kellogg” emerged from the food industry, at least its medieval version, having derived from a Middle English term for slaughtering (“Kellen”) hogs. But John Harvey Kellogg, designer of corn flakes, prolific inventor, and notorious eccentric, won no Nobel Prize. Rather, the Minnesotan trustbuster and diplomat Frank Billings Kellogg earned that honor in 1929, primarily for the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which optimistically outlawed war. More recently, of course, Frank B. was chosen for the equally singular distinction of bearing the name of a street in Lake Nona.

Perhaps most remarkable about Kellogg’s extraordinary life is that it began so humbly. Born a modest farm boy, Kellogg patched together only a desultory primary education in upstate New York before his family moved west to Minnesota. There, leaving the family farm as a teenager, and having clocked in a couple more years in public schools, Kellogg managed to land a job in a law firm as what we would now likely call a gopher. The appeal of the legal profession must have enchanted Kellogg, as he resolutely set about to study law on his own (as well as history, Latin, and German), passing the Minnesota state bar exam in his 30th year.

After entering his cousin’s law firm in 1887, Kellogg took on cases representing railroads as well as iron mining and steel manufacturing firms, earning considerable wealth in the process, while befriending such magnates of monopolies as Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller. Surprisingly, despite his work in defense of these large, dominant companies, Kellogg gained national attention at the turn of the century as a trustbuster for his successful prosecution of the General Paper Company in defense of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, a case which President Theodore Roosevelt had invited him to undertake. Kellogg burnished his trustbuster reputation with subsequent prosecutorial victories over the Union Pacific Railroad and, poignantly, John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company.

Such achievements would already have made Kellogg a figure of national historical significance. But Kellogg’s outstanding career in politics and international diplomacy still lay ahead.

In 1904, Kellogg had begun his involvement in national Republican politics and by 1916 won election to the U.S. Senate from Minnesota. As his first official act as senator – supremely ironic in light of his later diplomatic work – Kellogg voted for U.S. entry into World War I. In the following decade, this conflict was seen as the “war to end all wars,” an objective Kellogg took to heart, working tirelessly throughout the 1920s to achieve some mechanism by which further such human cataclysms could be prevented. As a senator, Kellogg lobbied hard for U.S. ratification of the League of Nations, but that effort failed, as did Kellogg’s electoral bid to return to the Senate in 1922. Thus began Kellogg’s formal career as a diplomat, first as U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, then as Secretary of State, serving under President Calvin Coolidge until 1929.

In 1927, Aristide Briand, Kellogg’s French counterpart (and also the bearer of a street name in Laureate Park), proposed a bilateral treaty that would denounce war between France and the United States. Wary at first of the proposal, Kellogg reconsidered and transformed Briand’s draft text into a full-blown multilateral convention, which by the end of the decade fully 62 nations had ratified. At the core of the treaty was the concept that signatory states shall promise not to use war to resolve “disputes or conflicts.” Critics of the pact decried the document’s moralistic bent, and from a more practical perspective, the pact failed within months to stop Japan’s incursion into Manchuria, the first real test of its efficacy.

Nevertheless, the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which remains in effect today, has had a major impact on international affairs since its promulgation nearly a century ago. The notion of renouncing war as an instrument of national policy finally took hold at the close of World War II, and that same concept became a founding principle of the United Nations. Prosecutors at the postwar Nuremberg trials turned to the pact to convict Nazi leaders as war criminals. Most importantly, many argue that the relative absence of major wars among major nation states since 1945 can be traced back to the work accomplished two decades earlier by Frank Billings Kellogg and Aristide Briand, and the pacifist legacy they bequeathed to humanity.


Frank B Kellogg, right, US Secretary of State 1925-1929, defending American interference in Nicaragua, 1927.

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