Panzerkampfwagen V Panther Ausf G

Panzerkampfwagen V Panther Ausf G

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Panzerkampfwagen V Panther Ausf G

The Panther I Ausf G was the final version of the Panther to enter production during the Second World War, and was produced in larger numbers than the previous two versions combined.

Production of the Ausf G began in March 1944, and although the high production targets were never met at least 300 tanks were accepted in every remaining month of 1944 apart from October and December.

A number of the changes introduced on the Ausf G had been developed for the Panther II, many to increase the simplicity of production. Amongst these changes was the introduction of a straight tapered edge to the side of the hull above the tracks, in place of the more complex sides of earlier models.

The angle of the slope of the side armour was reduced by 11 degrees, making it less effective, so to counter this width of the the side armour was increased from 40mm to 50mm. To compensate the armour on the lower hull front and underneath the tank was made thinner.

The driver’s vision port was removed to strengthen the frontal armour. It was replaced with a rotating periscope above the driver. A new driver’s seat was introduced, and could be raised up so that the driver’s head would emerge from his hatch, allowing for better visibility when moving away from the battlefield.

During the production run of the Ausf G the gun mantlet was modified. On earlier tanks it had a circular profile, which created a “shot trap” below the gun, where incoming rounds could hit the base of the mantlet and be deflected down onto the thin roof armour. The bottom half of the new mantlet was wedge shaped, eliminating the problem.

A shortage of raw materials meant that an all-steel running gear had to be installed on the Panther Ausf G, beginning with chassis number 121052. During the production run a number of further changes were made, including the addition of a gearbox oil cooler, 3mm armoured ammo bins and a heater for the fighting compartment.

All three Panther variants operated in the same units, but combat attrition meant that the Ausf G was by far the most common version by the end of 1944, by which time the Panther accounted for over half of the entire German tank force.

Panzerkampfwagen V Ausf G (Sd Kfz 171)
Panther I

Number produced: 3,126
Produced: March 1944-April 1945
Length: 8.86m
Hull Width: 3.4m
Height: 2.98m
Crew: 5
Weight: 45,5 tons
Engine: Maybach HL230P30
Max Speed: 46 km/hr
Max Range: 200km
Main Gun: One 7.5cm KwK42 L/70
Secondary Armament: Two 7.92mm MG34





Top/ Bottom






Hull – upper



40 & 16mm

Hull – lower





Gun mantlet


Panzerkampfwagen V Panther Ausf G - History

2913 days since
Panther Tank V Site Launch

Ausf G.

The Ausf G. version was designed to incorporate some of the features on the planned Panther II. In the early-production models, the Panther Ausf G would have a Ausf. A turret, with a chassis, with no rear downward wedge. The side plates were angled at 29 degrees, instead of the previous 40. To continue to strengthen the side armor, the thickness was increased to 50 millimeters. Yet the designers did not want the Ausf. G to be heavier than the Ausf. A, so the front belly armor decreased to 25 millimeters, which increased internal ammunition storage room, to 82 rounds, instead of 79. The driver's visor was taken off, and in its place a rotating periscope was added. The driver's and radio operator's hatches were redesigned, and a new format on the rear hull deck and modified exhaust pipes were introduced.

Fought at Battle of the Bulge, Arracourt

Panther Ausf G.

Wwii axis reenactment forum

The Panther / Panzerkampfwagen V Panther Ausführung G

Post by Shergar » Tue Jul 15, 2008 5:18 pm

The Panther from internet search

Was a tank fielded by Germany in World War II that served from mid-1943 to the end of the European war in 1945. It was intended as a counter to the T-34, and to replace the Panzer IV and III, though it served along with them and the heavy tanks until the end of the war. The Panther's excellent combination of firepower, mobility, and protection served as a benchmark for other nations' late war and immediate post-war tank designs and it is frequently regarded (along with the Soviet T-34-85) as the best tank design of World War II.

Until 1944 it was designated as the Panzerkampfwagen V Panther and had the Ordnance inventory designation of Sd.Kfz. 171. On 27 February 1944, Hitler ordered that the Roman numeral V be deleted from the tank's designation.

Development and production

The Panther was a direct response to the Soviet T-34. First encountered on 23 June 1941, the T-34 decisively outclassed the existing Panzer IV and Panzer III. At the insistence of General Heinz Guderian a team was dispatched to the Eastern Front to assess the T-34. Among the features of the Soviet tank considered most significant were the sloping armor, which gave much improved shot deflection and also increased the effective armor thickness against penetration, the wide track and large road wheels which improved mobility over soft ground, and the 76.2 mm gun, which had good armour penetration and fired an effective high-explosive round. Daimler-Benz (DB) and Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG (MAN) were tasked with designing a new thirty to thirty-five-ton tank, designated VK3002, by April 1942 (apparently in time to be shown to Hitler for his birthday).

A Panther Ausf. G in Houffalize, Belgium.The two proposals were delivered in April 1942. The Daimler-Benz (DB) design was a direct homage to the T-34, side-stepping the German propensity for over-engineering and, hence, complexity, to produce a clean, simple design resembling the T-34 in hull and turret form, diesel engine, drive system, leaf spring suspension, track layout, and other features. In the DB design, like the T-34 design, the internal crew layout provided for two men: the commander would also have to serve as the gunner. This provided the advantage of a smaller, inexpensive turret design, as well as manpower savings, and a smaller target for enemy gunners to hit during a battle.

The MAN design was more conventional German thinking: it was higher and wider with a substantial turret placed centrally on the hull, a petrol engine, torsion-bar suspension, and a characteristically German internal crew layout for three men: commander, gunner, and loader. The MAN design was accepted in May, 1942 in spite of Hitler's preference for the DB design. One of the principal reasons for this was that the MAN design used an existing turret designed by Rheinmetall-Borsig while the DB design would have required a brand new turret to be designed and produced, substantially delaying the commencement of production.

A mild steel prototype was produced by September 1942 and, after testing at Kummersdorf, was officially accepted. It was put into immediate production with the very highest priority. The start of production was delayed, however, mainly because there were too few specialized machine tools needed for the machining of the hull. Finished tanks were produced in December and suffered from reliability problems as a result of this haste. The demand for this tank was so high that the manufacturing was soon expanded out of MAN to include Daimler-Benz and in 1943 the firms of Maschinenfabrik Niedersachsen-Hannover (MNH) and Henschel & Sohn in Kassel.

The initial production target was 250 tanks per month at MAN. This was increased to 600 per month in January 1943. Despite determined efforts this figure was never reached due to disruption by Allied bombing, manufacturing bottlenecks, and other difficulties. Production in 1943 averaged 148 per month. In 1944, it averaged 315 a month (3,777 having been built that year), peaking with 380 in July and ending around the end of March 1945, with at least 6,000 built in total. Strength peaked on September 1, 1944 at 2,304 tanks, but that same month a record number of 692 tanks were reported lost (source: T.L. Jentz (1999) Die deutsche Panzertruppe Band 2).

Design characteristics

If the over-hanging gun and sloping armor are ignored, the Panther was a conventional German design. The weight of the production model had increased to 43 tonnes from the planned 35.

The Panther was the first Axis tank design where modern features were more prominent than early WWII-era ones. Once the problems caused by the vulnerability of the engine and the transmission were solved, it proved to be a very effective fighting vehicle, being as effective as heavier Allied tanks.

The Panther was powered by a 700 PS (690 hp, 515 kW)/3000 rpm, 23.1 litre Maybach HL 230 P30 V-12 petrol engine that drove two front drive sprockets via the gearbox and steering unit. The engine was generally considered reliable, and had a fatigue life of up to 2000 kilometers. In order to minimize engine failures, the Panther engines were fitted with a governor in late 1943 that limited the engine revolutions to 2500 rpm and power to 600 PS (592 hp, 441 kW). The installation of the governor also dropped the tank's top speed from 55 km/h to 46 km/h.

The suspension consisted of front drive sprockets, rear idlers and eight double-interleaved rubberized steel bogie wheels on each side, suspended on a dual torsion bar suspension that had two torsion bars per each swing arm. The Panther's suspension was costly and time-consuming to manufacture and the interleaved system made replacing inner bogies time consuming and the whole set up was prone to freezing solid overnight in severe Russian winters. However it provided excellent floatation and stability and contributed significantly to the Panther's generally excellent tactical mobility and performance as a gun platform.

Tank control was accomplished through a seven-speed AK 7-200 synchromesh gearbox, designed by ZF, and a MAN single radius steering system, operated by steering levers. The steering system allowed a single, fixed radius of turn at each gear. The higher the gear, the bigger was the turning radius. If the radius was bigger than desired, the steering brakes could be used to tighten the turn.

The weakest parts in the tank were, throughout its career, the final drive units. The main reason for this was that the units could not be manufactured using hollow gears, due to the shortage of suitable gear-cutting machinery in Germany during the war. The final drives were in fact so weak that their fatigue life was sometimes as low as 150 km.

The crew was made up of five members: driver, radio operator (who also fired the bow machine gun), gunner, loader, and commander.

The armor consisted of a thick homogeneous steel glacis (i.e. frontal hull) plate sloped back at 55 degrees from the vertical, welded but also interlocked for strength. The combination of thick 80 mm armor with a high degree of slope made the Panther's glacis armor extremely effective: very few Allied or Soviet weapons could penetrate it. The front of the turret was covered by a 100 mm thick cast mantlet, made in the shape of a semi-circle. The curved shape of the mantlet meant that it was more likely to deflect shells. But it was discovered that the rounded mantlet created a shot-trap: if a non-penetrating hit bounced downwards off the lower mantlet, it could penetrate the thin forward hull roof armor, and plunge down into the front crew compartment. Penetrations of this nature could have had catastrophic results since the front crew compartment housed the driver and radio operator sitting along both sides of the massive gearbox and steering unit combination, topped with the radio equipment. From September 1944, a redesigned mantlet with a much thicker "chin" design was fitted to the Panther G, the chin being intended to prevent such deflections.

The main weakness of the Panther tank was its much thinner (40–50 mm thick) side armor. The thinner side armor was necessary to keep the tank's overall weight within reasonable bounds, but it made the Panther vulnerable to attacks from the side by most Allied and Soviet tank and anti-tank guns. German tactical doctrine for the use of the Panther thus emphasised the importance of flank protection. Five millimeter skirt armor, Schürzen, intended to provide protection for the lower side hull from Soviet anti-tank rifle fire was fitted on the hull side. Zimmerit ceramic coating against magnetic mines also became standard with the Ausf. A, and retrofitted to older versions until deleted from new Panthers from about September 1944.

The main gun was a semi-automatic 7.5 cm Rheinmetall-Borsig KwK 42 (L/70) with 79 rounds (82 on Ausf. G). The main gun used three different types of ammunition, APCBC-HE (Pzgr. 39/42), HE (Sprgr. 42) and APCR (Pzgr. 40/42), the last of which was usually in short supply. While the gun was of only average caliber for its time, the Panther's gun was one of the most powerful tank guns of WWII, due to the large propellant charge and the long barrel, which gave it a very high muzzle velocity and excellent armor-piercing qualities. The flat trajectory also made hitting targets much easier, since accuracy was less sensitive to range. The 75 mm gun actually had more penetrating power than the main gun of the Tiger I heavy tank, the 8.8 cm KwK 36 L/56.

The tank had normally two MG 34 machine guns of a specific version designed for use in armored combat vehicles featuring an armored barrel sleeve. An MG 34 machine gun was located co-axially with the main gun on the gun mantlet an identical MG 34 was located on the glacis plate and fired by the radio operator. Initial Ausf. D and early Ausf. A models used a "letterbox" flap opening, through which the machine gun was fired. Later Ausf A and all Ausf G models use a more conventional ball mount in the glacis for this machine gun. The Ausf A introduced a new cast commander's cupola. It featured a steel hoop to which a third MG 34 or either the coaxial or the bow machine gun could be mounted for use in the anti-aircraft role, though it was rare for this to be used in actual combat situations.

The Panther was intended to supplement the Panzer IV and replace the Panzer III medium tanks. Each German Panzer (armored) Division had two tank battalions the intent was to equip one battalion in each division with Panthers, retaining the lighter, older, but still useful Panzer IV in the other battalion. Beginning in mid-1943, battalions were gradually converted to Panthers.

The Panther first saw action at Kursk on July 5, 1943. Early tanks were plagued with mechanical problems: the track and suspension often broke, and the engine was dangerously prone to overheating and bursting into flames. At Kursk, more Panthers were disabled by their own failings than by enemy action. For example, the XLVIII Panzer Corps reported on July 10, 1943, that they had 38 Panthers operational and 131 awaiting repair, out of about 200 they had started with on July 5. Heinz Guderian, who had not wanted Hitler to order them into combat so soon, later remarked about the early Panther's performance in the battle: "they burnt too easily, the fuel and oil systems were insufficiently protected, and the crews were lost due to lack of training." Guderian also stated, however, that the firepower and frontal armor were good. While many of the Panthers used at Kursk were damaged or suffered from mechanical difficulties, only a small number were lost for good and the tanks also achieved success, destroying 263 Soviet tanks.

After Kursk, the tanks suffering from damage or mechanical breakdowns were repaired and the inherent design problems of the early Ausf. D models were fixed, making the Panther a truly formidable tank. Later in 1943 and, especially, into 1944 Panthers appeared in increasing numbers on the Soviet-German front. By June 1944, Panthers were about one-half of the German tank strength both in the east and the west. The Panther was increasingly commonly encountered by Allied forces and by the end of the war it was the third most produced German armored fighting vehicle.

Perhaps the best known German Panther commander was SS-Oberscharführer Ernst Barkmann of the 2nd SS-Panzer Division "Das Reich".

The Allied response

The Soviet response to the large numbers of Panthers on their front was swift. In 1943 the Red Army was still equipped with T-34 tanks armed with the same 76.2 mm gun as in 1941. This gun was ineffective against the Panther's frontal armor, meaning the Soviet tanks had to try to flank the Panther to be able to successfully destroy it, while the Panther's main gun could penetrate the T-34 at long range from any angle. Plans were made to improve the T-34 with an 85 mm gun and new and more spacious three-man turret, producing the T-34-85. Although this tank was not quite the equal of the Panther, it was much better than the 76.2 mm-armed versions and made up for its quality shortcomings by being produced in greater quantities than the Panther. New self-propelled anti-tank vehicles based on the T-34 hull, such as the SU-85 and SU-100, were also developed. By mid-1944, the Red Army was deploying far more T-34-85s than the Germans had Panthers.

A German comparison of German tanks with the new Soviet T-34-85 and IS-2 heavy tank (with a 122 mm gun), from March 23, 1944, stated that "the Panther is far superior to the T-34/85 for frontal fire (Panther Ausf G could penetrate frontal armor of T-34/85 at 2,000 m, while T-34/85 could penetrate frontal armor of Panther Ausf G at 500 m), approximately equal for side and rear fire, superior to the IS-2 for frontal fire and inferior for side and rear fire." In 1943 and 1944, a Panther was able to destroy any Allied enemy tank in existence at ranges of 2,000 m, while in general veteran Panther crews reported a 90 percent hit rate at ranges up to 1,000 m. The Panther weighed about as much as the new Soviet IS-2 heavy tank, and indeed this vehicle is a closer match than the much lighter T-34.

The Western Allies' response was inconsistent. The Panther was not employed against the western Allies until early 1944 at Anzio, where Panthers were employed in small numbers. The Panther was thought to be another heavy tank that would not be built in large numbers. Thus the US Army entered the Battle of Normandy expecting to face a handful of German heavy tanks alongside large numbers of Panzer IVs. In fact almost half the German tanks in Normandy were Panthers and the 75 mm guns of the US Sherman tanks could not penetrate their frontal armor.

US forces eventually responded with large numbers of 76 mm-armed Shermans, 90 mm-armed tank destroyers, and eventually the Pershing heavy tank. Even with these better weapons it was still difficult to penetrate the frontal armor of the Panther.

British forces responded to the heavier German tanks with the 17-pounder gun mounted in the Sherman (the Sherman Firefly), as well as towed 17-pounders. By the conclusion of the Normandy campaign, British forces were fielding roughly a 1:4 ratio of Fireflys to 75 mm Shermans in their tank units. Eventually they deployed the Comet tank in 1945.

The Panther remained a major German tank until the end of the war. Later versions of the Panzer IV with long 75 mm KwK 40 L/48 guns were slightly cheaper to produce and more reliable, and so they remained in production alongside the Panther. However, the main reason for the prolonged Panzer IV production was that the reorganization of the German tank industry to manufacture Panthers rather than Panzer IVs would have resulted in such a temporary decrease in overall tank production that it would have been unbearable for Germany when the tide of war had already turned.

Around the time of the Battle of the Bulge, a number of Panther tanks were disguised to look roughly like an M10 Wolverine by welding on additional plates, applying US-style camouflage paint and markings. This was carried out as part of a larger operation that involved paradropping soldiers disguised as Americans, and other activities. These deception attempts were uniformly unsuccessful and the disguised Panthers were detected and destroyed.

Captured Panthers proved to be extremely popular vehicles among Soviet troops, who received them as rewards for extraordinary achievements in combat, and who sought to keep them in service as long as possible, contrary to regulations that captured Panthers should not be repaired but abandoned and destroyed after mechanical failure. Even the humorous instruction manual for German Panther crews, called the Pantherfibel (Panther Primer), was translated into Russian and provided to crews of captured Panthers[1].

British 6th Guards Tank Brigade captured one Panzerkampfwagen V Panther Ausführung G medium tank around the time of Ardennes offensive.

Further development

Panther II on display at Patton Cavalry and Armor Museum, Fort Knox, KY. The turret doesn't belong to this vehicle, and was installed later.Design work on the Panther II began in February 1943. The main aim was to secure maximum interchangeability of parts with the Tiger II heavy tank in order to ease manufacturing. The Panther II had a hull similar to the Tiger Ausf. B, and also shared identical wheels, track, suspension and brakes. One of the parts to be changed was the gun-mantlet, which had to become smaller. This was referred to in German as Turm mit schmaler Blende (narrow-mantlet turret).

The Panther II project never got further than one single chassis, that now can be seen in the Patton Museum.

The only other significant differences between the Panther and the Panther II were running gear, and increased armor protection. The turret was exactly the same on both types. The Panther II was only designed with the 7.5 cm KwK L/70 in mind, and the 8.8 cm KwK L/71 idea didn't enter into consideration after the Panther II project had been dropped.

Later in the war, in March 1944, work started again on a Panther turret with a smaller forward aspect. This led to the development of the Schmalturm (narrow turret). In August a Versuchsturm (trials turret) was completed. This was mounted on the chassis of a regular Panther Ausf. G. The Schmalturm featured thicker armour, a built-in stereoscopic rangefinder, the capability to carry the 88 mm KwK L/71 and eliminated the shot-trap under the mantle, but weighed less than the original turret. A partially destroyed example of a production Schmalturm still exists, and is on display at the Bovington Tank Museum.

In that same period, development of the Panther led to the Ausf. F, slated for production in April 1945. The key points for this mark of Panther were the new Schmalturm with its improved armor protection, and an extended front hull roof which was also slightly thicker. A number of Ausf. F hulls were built at Daimler-Benz and Ruhrstahl-Hattingen steelworks however there is no evidence that any completed Ausf F saw service before the end of the war.

Designs based on chassis

Jagdpanther - heavy tank destroyer with the 88 mm L/71
Befehlspanzer Panther - command tank with additional radio equipment
Beobachtungspanzer Panther - observation tank for artillery spotters dummy gun armed with only two MG 34
Bergepanther - armored recovery vehicle

Prototypes: 2 produced in 11/42 (designated V1 and V2)
Ausf. D: 842 produced (1/43 to 9/43)
Ausf. A: 2,192 produced (8/43 to 6/44, sometimes called Ausf. A2)
Ausf. G: 2,953 (3/44 to 4/45)
Befehlspanzer Panther: 329 Converted (5/1943 to 2/1945)
Beobachtungspanzer Panther: 41 Converted (1944/1945)
Bergepanther: 347 (1943 to 1945)

Pa nther use after the Second World War

After 1945, fifty Panther tanks had been used by French 503e Régiment de Chars de Combat stationed in Mourmelon le Grand. Before the end of 1950, the Panther tanks had been replaced by French-built ARL 44 heavy tanks.

Surviving Vehicles

Twenty-eight Panthers survive in conditions rangeing from wrecks to fully restored. Four - held by the Kubinka Tank Museum in Russia, the Musée des Blindés in France and the Deutsches Panzermuseum in Munster and the Wehrtechnische Studiensammlung in Koblenz, Germany - are in running condition. Two more Panthers are being restored to running condition by private collectors in England (Kevin Wheatcroft) and the United States (Jacques Littlefield). Kevin Wheatcroft will also restore the two other Panther tanks that he owns to running condition. A unique Panther Ausf. D (the only known complete survivor) is displayed in the Wilhelmina park in Breda, The Netherlands. This tank was donated by the 1st Polish Armed Division after liberating Breda, it was restored in 2004-2005 for static display by Kevin Wheatcroft in exchange for automotive components. In Switzerland, a static model is on display in the Panzermuseum at the Thun Barracks.

Техническо описание [ редактиране | редактиране на кода ]

Корпус [ редактиране | редактиране на кода ]

Корпусът на Pz.Kpfw.V е от заварени бронеплочи, разположени под ъгъл. Горната челна броня има дебелина 80 мм и ъгъл на наклона 55°, а долната с дебелина 60 мм и същият ъгъл на наклон. Бордовите бронеплочи са с дебелина 40 мм. като горните са разположени под ъгъл 40°, а долните – вертикално. Кърмовите бронеплочи имат дебелина 30 мм и ъгъл на наклона 30°. Горната част на корпуса е покрита с хоризонтално разположени бронеплочи с дебелина 17 мм. Пред куполата те са подвижни, като така се осигурява достъп до предавателната кутия и рулевото управление. Дъното на корпуса в предната си част има дебелина 30 мм, а в задната – 17 мм.

В покрива на корпуса, пред куполата, са монтирани два люка – за механик-водача и радиста. Люковете се отварят, като се приповдигат леко нагоре и се отместват встрани. Над двигателното отделение е монтиран люк за осигуряване ремонтно-технически достъп. Предвидена е възможност за свалянето на бронеплочите на корпусния покрив без снемането на куполата.

Полезрението на всички членове на екипажа с изключение на командира е ограничено. Мястото на мерача е оборудвано с телескопичен прицел Turmzielfernrohr 12, осигуряващ 2,5 кратно увеличение. В корпуса вляво от мерача е монтирана бойница за стрелба с личното оръжие. Аналогична бойница е монтирана в корпуса вдясно от пълнача. В челната броня пред механик-водача е монтиран наблюдателен процеп с ламинирано бронестъкло и два неподвижни перископа, осигуряващи обзор напред и леко вляво. Радистът-стрелец може да води наблюдение само през прицела на курсовата картечница и два неподвижни перископа.

Купола [ редактиране | редактиране на кода ]

Предната част на куполата е с дебелина 100 мм и е разположена под ъгъл 12°. Бордовете са изпълнени от единична огъната монолитна бронеплоча с дебелина 45 мм и са разположени под ъгъл 25°. Задната бронеплоча е монолитна, права и има същите характеристики като бордовите. В нея е монтирана бойница за стрелба с личното стрелково оръжие. Покрива на куполата е изпълнен от огъната монолитна бронеплоча с дебелина 17 мм. В задната си част е хоризонтална, а в предната наклонена напред под ъгъл 84,5°. Достъпът до куполата става през люк в горната част на куполата или люк в задната стена, зад мястото на пълнача. Куполата е снабдена с вентилатор, прикрит с бронекапак.

Монтираната в куполата командирска кула е цилиндрична надстройка с шест наблюдателни процепа, прикрити с 50 мм бронестъкло.

Оръдейната маска закрива по-голямата част от челната броня на куполата. В централната си част тя е с дебелина около 100 мм, а в горната и долната си части леко намалява.

Въоръжение [ редактиране | редактиране на кода ]

Въоръжението на танка включва 75 мм оръдие KwK 42 L/70 и две 7,92 мм картечници MG 34. Едната от картечниците е сдвоена неподвижно с оръдието, а другата се монтира в специален отвор в челната броня. Членовете на екипажа са въоръжени с пистолети P08 или P-38, картечни пистолети MP40 и ръчни гранати.

Боекомплектът на оръдието се състои от 79 снаряда. Част от снарядите (40) са разположени хоризонтално на стелажи, 36 – верикално покрай двата борда, а три – в задната част на бойното отделение.

Боекомплектът за картечниците се състои от 5100 патрона, разположени в 34 чанти. Всяка чанта съдържа по една лента със 150 патрона.

Двигател [ редактиране | редактиране на кода ]

Силовата установка на танка се състои от 12-цилиндров карбураторен двигател Maybach HL 210 P30 с мощност 650 к.с. (478 kW) при 3000 об./мин, 7-скоростна предавателна кутия AK 7-200, бордови фрикциони и бордови предавки.

Ходова част [ редактиране | редактиране на кода ]

Ходовата част на танка се състои от осем опорни ролки с диаметър 860 мм, закрепени на торсионни механизми. Опорните катки са гумирани с бандаж и частично се закриват една друга.

Средства за свръзка [ редактиране | редактиране на кода ]

Танкът е снабден с радиостанция FuG 5, която е УКВ приемопредавателна с мощност 10 W и работен диапазон 27,2–33,4 MHz. Радиостанцията осигурява далечина на свръзката 4–6 км, но далечината силно зависи от характера на местността и метеорологичните условия.

Танковете на командирите на взводове и роти освен с FuG 5 са снабдени с УКВ приемник FuG 2 с работен диапазон 27,2–33,4 MHz. В по-късните модификации вместо FuG 2 е монтирана КВ радиостанция FuG 8 с мощност 30 W и работен диапазон 0,83–3 MHz или УКВ радиостанция FuG 7 с мощност 20 W и работен диапазон 42,1–47,8 MHz.

Всички танкове са оборудвани със система за вътрешна връзка с капацитет 5 души, комплект от сигнални флагчета и ракетен пистолет.

A PzKpfw V Panther az Szovjetunióbeli nagy német páncélos veszteségeket volt hivatott csökkenteni, ugyanis a szovjetek korszerű T–34-ei megtizedelték az 1941-ben a keleti fronton szolgálatot teljesítő német harckocsikat (PzKpfw III és IV-eseket).

A Panther besorolása tömeg szerint: a Panther megnevezése bizonytalanságot kelt, a németek esetenként közepesnek, máshol nehéznek minősítették a Panther harckocsit. A tömege alapján azonban (44 800 kg) ugyanúgy a nyugati szövetségesek, mint a szovjetek értelmezése szerint a nehézharckocsik közé tartozott (az amerikai Pershingek és a szovjet ISZ-típusú harckocsik voltak hasonló tömegkategóriában). A Panther tömeg szerinti besorolása egy egyszerű módszerrel eldönthető, aminek lényege a közepes és a nehéz harckocsik tömegadatainak összevetése a Panther tömegével. Ennek alapján a Panther egyértelműen a nehézharckocsi kategóriába sorolandó. [1]

1941. november 18-án egy különleges bizottság érkezett a Szovjetunióban harcoló 2. Páncélos hadtesthez, hogy felmérjék a helyzetet, és felállítsák azokat a követelményeket, amelyek szerint fejlesztik ki az új harckocsit. Ennek keretében beszéltek a német páncélostisztekkel, és megtekintettek pár zsákmányolt T–34-est. A csoport tagjai, Porsche professzor, Oswald (az MAN mérnöke) és dr. Aders (Henschel). A fejlesztéssel párhuzamosan foglalkozott a Daimler Benz és a MAN. A Daimler-Benz prototípusa, a VK3002 külsőleg szinte a T–34-es pontos mása volt, és ez a fronton problémákhoz vezetett volna, ezért a gyár megszakította a projektet. A MAN prototípusa sokkal ígéretesebbnek mutatkozott, nagyobb volt a hatótávolsága, mint a Daimler-Benz változatnak, és benzin-üzemű motorral volt felszerelve. A MAN két darabot gyártott le (VK 3002 (M) és VK 3003 (M)), és mindkettőt tesztelték az Eisenach melletti gyakorlópályán. A sikeres tesztek után elindították a gyártást, a harckocsikat a MAN, a Daimler-Benz, a Henschel und Sohns AG és a Maschinenfabrik Niedersachsen Hannover (MNH) nehézgépgyárakban készítették – egy harckocsi gyártási költsége 117 000 birodalmi márka volt.

A VK3002 (M) prototípus a Guderian-bizottság által megkövetelt kiegyensúlyozott mozgékonyság-védettség-tűzerő paramétereket testesítette meg, ugyanakkor a (korai változatnál) 650 LE teljesítményű karburátoros Otto-motor, a 40–80 mm közti döntött-hegesztett síklemezekből kiképzett páncéltest és torony, illetve a korábbi fejlesztésekre épülő átlapolt futómű gyártása technológiai szempontból megoldhatónak bizonyult. A hétfokozatú ZF AK 7-2000 váltómű megfelelő mozgékonyságot biztosított. A 7,5 cm-es űrméretű KwK 42 L/70-es löveg teljesítménye előre láthatóan évekig elegendő bármely páncélozott célpont leküzdésére.

A háború alatt több Németországgal szövetséges állam is érdeklődött a Panther iránt: a harckocsi licencét Magyarország is meg akarta venni, de a németek a licencért 200 millió márka uzsoraárat kértek. A 200 db-os magyar gyártás minden egyes harckocsiját 1 000 000 birodalmi márka terhelte volna csak licencköltség címén, ez pedig sokkal több volt, mint a jármű valós ára, így érthetően a magyar fél elállt a vételi jogtól.

1943-ban Svédország megvett egy Ausf. A- t. Ugyanezen év februárjában intenzív német-olasz megbeszélések folytak egy olasz Fiat-gyár Panther-gyártásra való felkészüléséről. A MAN már el is készítette a gyártáshoz szükséges gépsort, de az olasz kapituláció megakadályozta a terv megvalósulását.

Japán is megrendelt egy Panther-t és egy Tiger H1-et, azonban ezeket soha nem küldték el a Távol-keleti országba.

A harckocsiágyú Szerkesztés

A Panther fő fegyvere a 7,5 cm KwK 42 páncéltörő ágyú volt. Az ágyúcső hossza névlegesen 70 űrmérethosszú volt (L/70), ténylegesen 67,3 volt a cső űrmérethossza, azaz 5250 mm, a csőszájfékkel együtt 5535 mm. [2] Az ágyúkat a düsseldorfi Rheinmetall-Borsig és a brünni Zbrojovka gyár készítette. Az ágyú tömege 1084 kg volt csőszájfékkel, lövegpajzzsal együtt pedig 2650 kg. Az D és A változatokba 79 db, míg a G változatba 82 db lőszert lehetett málházni háromféle típusból: Panzergranate 39/42, a repesz-romboló Sprenggranate 42 és a volfrám-karbid-magvas Panzergranate 40/42.

A motor Szerkesztés

A harckocsit Maybach HL 230 P30, illetve Maybach HL 210 P45 (Tiger I) típusú motorok hajtották. A motor 3000-es fordulatszámon 700 lóerő teljesítményt adott, a gyakorlatban azonban leszabályozták a túlmelegedés és az élettartam-növelés céljából 2500-as fordulatszámra. Az üzemanyag 74-es oktánszámú benzin volt, a 2 db benzintartály összesen 730 liter befogadására volt képes.

Még a tömeggyártás megkezdése előtt legyártottak 20 darab nulladik sorozatbeli harckocsit, Ausführung A jelzéssel (jelentése A változat) – ennek természetesen semmi köze nem volt az 1943 szeptemberétől gyártott Ausf. A változathoz. Erről a változatról kevés kép maradt fenn, a Panzer Lehr tankhadosztály használta a harckocsizók kiképzésére. Valószínűleg ennek a hadosztálynak a kötelékében jutott el 1944-ben a nyugati frontra, Normandiába. 1943 februárjától ezt a változatot Ausf. D1-nek nevezték.

D változat Szerkesztés

Az első nagy számban gyártott változatot D betűvel jelölték meg, a B és C jelzést nem alkalmazták. Az Ausf. D változat alig különbözött valamiben a prototípustól: a harckocsiágyú csőszájfékét és a parancsnoki kupolát módosították. A homlokpáncélba épített MG 34 géppuska menethelyzetben a harckocsi belsejében lett rögzítve, csak a tüzelés előtt helyezte el bölcsőjében a rádiókezelő. Az 1943 második felében épített harckocsik ferde lemezeinek felületeit zimmerit pasztával kenték be és oldalaikra 10 mm vastag acéllemezeket, kötényezést szereltek fel. A torony bal oldalán kör alakú, belülről zárható nyílást alakítottak ki a kilőtt töltényhüvelyek kidobálására. A harckocsit két Bosch-reflektorral is felszerelték.

A változat Szerkesztés

Az Ausf. A változatot 1943 szeptemberének végétől kezdték el gyártani a kurszki csata keserű tapasztalatai alapján. Ennek a változatnak módosították a parancsnoki kupoláját, az ún. "szemeteskosár" került rá, amit elláttak légvédelmi feladatokra alkalmas, körbeforgatható állvánnyal az MG 34 számára, illetve a homlokpáncélban lencse alakú acélburokba helyezték el a védőgéppuskát, továbbra is a rádiós kezelte szükség esetén. Módosították a motor kipufogórendszerét és hűtését, eltüntették a torony bal oldalának kör alakú ajtaját, módosították az ágyú céltávcsöveit és a reflektorok számát egyre csökkentették.

G változat Szerkesztés

1944 márciusától indult az Ausf. G gyártása, amely főként a készülő Jagdpanzer V (propagandanevén Jagdpanther) páncélvadász gyártása miatt került kifejlesztésre. Ezt a változatot gyártották a legnagyobb számban. A homlokpáncélról eltűnt a harckocsivezető kilátónyílása (csökkentve ezzel a páncéllemez gyengítését), helyette a vezető fölé egy körbeforgatható periszkópot szereltek, továbbá vastagságát 60 mm-ről 80 mm-re növelték. A harckocsitest oldalpáncél-lemezeinek dőlésszögét 61 fokra változtatták (az Ausf. D és A-é 50 fok volt) és hátrafelé lejtve alakították ki, kis mértékben ugyan, de növelve az oldalvédelmet. Az oldalankénti 3 db lengéscsillapítóból csak 2 db-ot hagytak meg, a hátsókat kiszerelték. Tovább javították a motor hűtését, a bal oldali szellőztető ventilátorra egy plusz ventilátort helyeztek, mely a motorból kiáramló meleg levegőt visszafújta a beltérbe, ez a korszerű fűtőberendezés (német nevén: Kampfraumheizung, jelentése: legénységi fűtőberendezés) szolgáltatta télen a fűtést a harckocsiban. Később a G változat motorhűtési megoldásait a szovjet harckocsigyártók is behatóbban vizsgálták. A harckocsiágyú tisztítókészletét befogadó tartályt a bal oldalpáncélra, majd a kései gyártású példányoknál, 1944 nyarától a farlemez fölé szerelték fel. [3] Néhány sorozatnak a Tiger-ek gumírozás nélküli acélgörgői voltak feltéve. Meglétüket pusztán a gumi alapanyag hiánya jelenti, műszaki szempontból nem volt jelentősége (a harctereken előfordult vegyesen felszerelt futóművű Panther harckocsi is).

Jagdpanzer V Szerkesztés

1942 januárjának elején az esseni Krupp-művek egy 8,8 cm-es ágyúval felszerelt páncélvadász (vagy másként vadászpáncélos) kifejlesztésére kapott megrendelést. A gyár júniusra elkészült egy kísérleti járművel, melynek tömege 30 000 kg lett, a homlokpáncél 80 mm, az oldalsó 60 mm vastag volt. A Pzkpfw V alvázára épült. A prototípust egyáltalán nem tesztelték, és augusztusban inkább egy nehezebb páncélvadász megtervezése mellett döntöttek, amelynek alapjául a MAN VK3002 prototípusa szolgált. Októberre és novemberre elkészültek a modellek (fából, 1:10, majd pedig 1:1 méretarányban). 1943 elején beindult a gyártás, a braunschweigi Mühlenbau und Industrie AG (MIAG) és a hannoveri Maschinenfabrik Niedersachsen gépgyárakban. A harckocsi 8,8 cm-es KwK 43/2-es agyúval, és egy MG 34-es géppuskával volt felszerelve. A homlokpáncél vastagsága szintén 80 mm volt.

Bergepanther nehézvontató Szerkesztés

A sérült, vagy a harctéren kilőtt, de visszanyert Panther harckocsik egy részéből műszaki-mentő változatokat építettek, de voltak új gyártású Bergepantherek is. Erre felhasználták mindhárom alapváltozat alvázát is. A sérült harckocsik tornyát eltávolították és egy nyitott felépítménnyel helyettesítették, ami egy csörlőnek adott helyet. A Bergepanther hátsó részére egy nagyméretű talptámaszt építettek, ami további stabilitást adott a csörlőjét használó járműnek. A jármű elülső részére pedig nyitott beépítéssel helyeztek el egy 7,92 mm űrméretű gépkarabélyt, amely önvédelmi célokat szolgált az ellenséges gyalogsággal szemben. 1944 nyarán lépett szolgálatba, a Wehrmacht nehézharckocsi-zászlóaljainál alkalmazták. A háború végéig közel 300 db Bergepanther épült meg a német gyárakban. A Bergepanther a Második világháború legfejlettebb műszaki-mentőjárművének bizonyult.

Technikai adatok: hosszúság: 6,14 m szélesség: 3,27 m magasság: 2,71 m tömeg: 42,2 t páncélzat: 8-40 mm személyzet: 5 fő hatótávolság műúton: 169 km maximális sebesség műúton: 32 km/h gázlóképesség: 1,7 m lépcsőmászó képesség: 0,91 m árokáthidaló képesség: 1,91 m. [4]

F változat Szerkesztés

1944 nyarán kezdődött az Ausf. F változat gyártásának előkészítése. A harckocsin több lényeges változtatást eszközöltek: vastagabb lett a homlokpáncélzat, az új lövegtoronyba (Schumalturm 605) a 7,5 cm-es KwK 44 módosított változatát építették (a tervek a későbbiekben a 8,8 cm-es ágyú alkalmazásával is számoltak). Az ágyút a brünni (Csehszlovákia) Zbrojovka gyár gyártotta volna, és a modernizálást szintén cseh mérnökök végezték. A lövegpajzs hasonlóan lett kialakítva, mint a Tiger II-nél, teljesen új volt a célzó és a távolságmérő optika. A homlokpáncélból eltávolították a géppuskát, és a rádiós-géppuskást egy Sturmgewehr 44 típusú gépkarabéllyal szerelték fel (volt görbített csövű változata is, amellyel a holt teret csökkentették), amellyel a testbe épített két lőállásból tüzelni lehetett. A járművet alkalmassá tették víz alatti átkelésre is (a nyílásokat szükség esetén légmentesen le lehetett zárni). A harckocsiból mindössze 2 darab készült el a háború végéig. A jelentős módosítások miatt nevezték még Panther II-nek is.

A Panther-ek a kurszki csatában debütáltak, nem túl sikeresen: a német offenzíva, majd a szovjet ellentámadás és a német visszavonulás alatt a németek csaknem mindet elvesztették, méghozzá anélkül, hogy a járművek jelentősebben be tudtak volna avatkozni a harcokba.

1943.Július 20. 200 Párduccal rendelkeztek a német erők, melyekből: [5]

  • 2 kigyulladt
  • 41 működő képes volt
  • 85 nem működő képes, de az ezred javító egységei képesek voltak kijavítani a hibákat helyileg
  • 16 oly súlyosan megsérült, hogy visszaküldték őket Németországba, nagyjavításra
  • 56-ot pedig elveszítettek, az 56-ból 49-et sikerült felrobbantani a visszavonulás során, de 7-et elfoglalt az ellenség még mielőtt megtudták volna azokat semmisíteni

Kurszki csatában elért győzelmek a Párduccal július 19.-én: [6]

Ezek alapján döntse el mindenki magában, mennyire nem volt effektív a Párduc Kurszknál.

A térségbe összevont kb. 350 db Pantherből mindössze a 2/3-a tudott a műveleti területre érni, kb. 120 db műszaki problémák miatt kivonásra került. Újra jelentkeztek a hajtómű- és futóműproblémák, a motor elégtelen hűtése miatt túlmelegedett, a lánctalpak is gyengének bizonyultak és gyakran elszakadtak. A kimentett példányokat visszaküldték a gyárakba alapos átdolgozásra. A módosított változatok (Ausf. A) már jobban szerepeltek. A harckocsit tűzerejének, páncélzatának valamint mozgékonyságának az aránya magasan az átlag fölé emelte és a II. világháború egyik leghatékonyabb harckocsijává tette, a szövetségesek nyomasztó létszámfölénye ellenére. Az amerikai hadsereg statisztikája szerint 1 „Párduc” kilövése 5 db Sherman, vagy 9 db T–34 elvesztésébe került. Gyenge pontjának a meglehetősen vékony oldalpáncélzat bizonyult. A németek ezért a páncélostámadások alkalmával oldalról rohamlövegekkel fedezték a támadó Panther-eket. A háború vége felé jelentős műszaki problémát okozott, hogy a futómű torziós rúdjainak készítéséhez nem mindig állt rendelkezésre megfelelő ötvözőanyag, ezért gyakoriak voltak a rúdtörések.

1944-45-ben több tesztet is végeztek speciálisan felszerelt Panther-eken infravörös képátalakítóval, új típusú hajtóművekkel- Daimler Benz dízelmotorral, illetve BMW Bramo 123 repülőgép-csillagmotorjával. A próbák sok esetben kiválóan sikerültek, de a módosított harckocsik sorozatgyártására és harci bevetésére valószínűleg sohasem került sor (csak infravörös-rendszerrel viszont igen). A Rheinmetal-Borsig, a Krupp és a cseh Škoda is épített egyedi, a korukat messze megelőző Panther-változatokat. A Krupp-projektek közül főleg a Panther-alvázra épült 12,8 cm-es ágyúval felszerelt önjáró löveg volt érdekes, a Rheinmetal-Borsig pedig több, légelhárító ágyúkkal ellátott konstrukcióval is próbálkozott, azonban egyik járművet sem gyártották nagy sorozatban. A Skoda egy 150 mm-es rakéta-sorozatvetőt tervezett a torony helyére, de ez a verzió még a prototípus stádiumot sem érte el.

Alkalmazásuk a második világháború után Szerkesztés

1945 után 50 db Panther teljesített szolgálatot a francia 503e Régiment de Chars de Combat-ban (nehézharckocsi ezred), amelyeket 1950 vége előtt a francia építésű ARL-44 nehézharckocsikkal váltottak fel. Rövid ideig a Vörös Hadseregben is szolgált néhány Párduc.

Több példány maradt fenn napjainkban, közülük jó pár működőképesen lett restaurálva.


O inesperado aparecimento do revolucionário tanque T-34 nas mãos soviéticas, fez com que todos os tanques alemães ficassem obsoletos, quase que literalmente da noite para o dia. Não havia nenhum tanque de tamanho ou performance comparáveis, disponíveis aos alemães, que até aquele momento não suspeitavam que os Russos tivessem qualquer coisa de desenho tão avançado. Esta complacência tinha sido causada totalmente pela excelência e versatilidade do PzKpfw. IV. Estudos para um sucessor do PzKpfw. IV tinha começado já em 1937, quando a firma Henschel e outras foram chamadas a produzir desenhos na classe de 30-35 toneladas. Entretanto, o progresso nesses foi lento, parcialmente devido a mudanças de idéias quanto as especificações. Em 1941, protótipos por Henschel-VK.3001(H), e Porsche-VK.3001(P), tinham sido completados mas, logo antes da invasão da Rússia, quanto o T-34 foi encontrado, as especificações foram mudadas mais uma vez em favor de um desenho maior, com um canhão de 8.8 cm. na categoria de 45 toneladas, o VK.4501. Este eventualmente se tornaria no tanque pesado "Tiger". Devido ao fato do desenho do VK.4501 ser necessário urgentemente, ele incorporou muitas das características dos protótipos de desenvolvimento anteriores e desta forma, o "Tiger" não ter relação com o desenho do T-34. O canhão de 8.8 cm. e a pesada (100mm) blindagem especificada para o VK.4501 foram entretanto influenciadas pela aparência do T-34, pois se considerava essencial ter um tanque em produção com essas características, como uma salvaguarda contra qualquer desenvolvimento Soviético de uma versão melhor armada e blindada do T-34.

Enquanto isso, o General Guderian, comandante do Panzergruppe II, em cujo setor o T-34 foi encontrado pela primeira vez em grandes números, em Novembro de 1941, enviou um relatório para o seu comandante de Grupo de Exércitos sugerindo que o Ministro dos Armamento deveria, de forma urgente montar uma comissão para investigar que tipo de novo desenho de tanque e canhão anti-tanque, seria necessário para conter a ameaça do T-34 e restituir a superioridade de tanques aos alemães. A comissão, Guderian sugeria, deveria incluir representantes do Departamento de Material Bélico do Exército, os principais fabricantes de tanques, e a seção de desenho de tanques. O Ministério dos Armamentos atuou de forma rápida, e criou justamente tal comissão, que foi enviada para a frente de Guderian para uma investigação “in loco”, em 20 de Novembro de 1941, para avaliar as principais características do desenho do T-34. As três principais características deste veículo que tornavam tecnicamente obsoletos todos os tanques alemães existentes eram: (1) blindagem inclinada, que dava capacidade de deflexão de tiro otimizada em todos os ângulos (2) as grandes rodas de suspensão, que davam um andamento estável e regular e (3) o canhão mais longo que o casco, uma característica anteriormente evitada pelos alemães, como impraticável. Destas, a primeira era a mais revolucionária. Tendo recebido o relatório da comissão em 25 de Novembro de 1941, o Ministério das Armamentos de imediato contratou as duas principais firmas de armamentos, Daimler-Benz e MAN, para produzir desenhos dum novo tanque médio na classe de 30-35 toneladas, sob a designação do material bélico de VK.3002. Para poderem estar prontos na primavera seguinte, as especificações pediam por um veículo com uma blindagem frontal de 60mm e lateral de 40mm, a frente e os lados devendo ser inclinados como no T-34. Uma velocidade máxima de 55 km/h deveria ser atingível.

Em Abril de 1942, os dois desenhos, VK.3002(DB)—DB: Daimler-Benz — e VK3002(MAN), foram submetidos ao Waffenprüffamt 6 comitê, a seção do Departamento de Armas do Exército (Heereswaffenamt) responsável por desenho e compra de veículos blindados de combate. Os projetos permitem um interessante contraste. A proposta de Daimler-Benz, era uma cópia demasiadamente similar do T-34, com a torre montada bem na parte frontal, com o assento do motorista posicionado na gaiola da torre, com a direção feita por controle remoto hidráulico. Um motor diesel MB507 foi instalado, com a transmissão para as rodas tratoras a ré, novamente copiando exatamente a disposição do T-34. Rodas de apoio emparelhadas de aço (sem cobertura de borracha) eram suspensas de feixes de molas e outras características incluíam portinholas de escape nos lados do casco e tanques de combustível ejetáveis na ré do casco, como no T-34. O VK.3002(DB) era, de fato, um projeto “limpo”, com muito potencial. Feixes de mola, por exemplo, são mais baratos e fáceis de produzir que barras de torção, e o uso de rodas de aço sem borracha já levava em conta os problemas de falta da matéria prima desde o início. O motor compacto e a transmissão para a ré deixava o compartimento de combate desimpedido para futuras melhorias no armamento ou mudanças estruturais, enquanto o motor diesel, por si, teria sido uma vantagem nos anos seguintes, quando o suprimento de gasolina se tornou muito restrito.

Em comparação, o VK.3002(MAN) mostrava o pensamento original alemão (ao invés do Russo) ele era sofisticado ao invés de simples. Tinha um casco mais alto e largo que o VK.3002(DB) e o T-34, com uma grande torre, colocada bem para trás para diminuir ao máximo a extensão além do casco do longo canhão de 7.5 cm, que deveria ser o armamento principal. Uma suspensão de barras de torção foi usada, com rodas de suspensão entrelaçadas, enquanto um motor V-12 Maybach HL 210, a gasolina foi proposto, com a tração nas rodas tratoras dianteiras. O arranjo interno seguia as práticas convencionais alemães, com posições para o motorista e atirador do casco/operador de rádio no compartimento da frente.

Quando os respectivos desenhos da Daimler-Benz e MAN foram apresentados pelo comitê Waffenprüfamt a 6 de Abril de 1942, Hitler ficou muito impressionado com o "tipo T-34" da proposta da Daimler-Benz, apesar de ele ter sugerido a substituição do canhão de 7.5 cm L/48 por outra arma, L/70, mais longa e mais poderosa. A intervenção de Hitler neste estágio levou a realização de uma encomenda de 200 VK.3002(DB), e protótipos chegaram a entrar em produção. Entretanto, o comitê montado pelo Waffenprüfamt 6 - que nesta altura estava sendo chamado de "comitê Panther" - preferiu o projeto VK.3002(MAN), por que ele era mais convencional em termos dos padrões de engenharia alemães de então. A proposta da MAN foi aceita em Maio de 1942 e foi pedido a eles que produzissem um protótipo de aço brando tão rápido quanto possível. Mais tarde em 1942, a encomenda dos 200 veículos da Daimler-Benz foi discretamente rescindida.

Enquanto isso, o Eng. Kniepkampf, engenheiro-chefe e projetista do Waffenprüfamt 6, tomou a responsabilidade pessoal do detalhe do projeto do veículo da MAN. Isto refletia a prioridade dada ao projeto Panther. Kniepkampf era uma figura chave nos projetos de veículos blindados de combate alemães daquele momento, tendo estado no Waffenprüfamt 1936 e permanecido como engenheiro chefe até o fim da guerra, em 1945. Entre outras coisas ele foi o principal responsável pelo desenvolvimento dos semi-lagartas alemães e introduziu algumas características, como as rodas de suporte entrelaçadas, suspensão de barra de torção e a caixa de marchas Maybach-Olvar nos tanques alemães.

Em Setembro de 1942 o primeiro modelo piloto do VK.3002(MAN) foi terminado e testado nos terrenos da fábrica MAN em Nuremberga. Este foi rapidamente seguido por um segundo modelo piloto que foi transportado para o campo de provas do Heereswaffenamt, em Kummersdorf, para testes oficiais do exército. Nesta época o tanque Tiger já tinha começado a ser produzido, mas as suas falhas - incluindo o peso excessivo, velocidade baixa e forma balística pobre - já eram reconhecidos. O novo veículo foi encomendado para produção imediata como o Pzkpfw. V Pantera, sob a designação do material bélico de Sd Kfz 171, com a priorização máxima.

O primeiro veículo foi entregue pela MAN em novembro de 1942. Era planeado construir a uma razão de 250 veículos por mês tão logo quanto possível, mas no final de 1942 esta meta tinha sido aumentada para 600 por mês. Para atingir uma meta tão ambiciosa era necessário formar um grande grupo de produção de panteras. A Daimler-Benz foi rapidamente alternada do trabalho com o seu projeto (protótipos dos quais tinham sido quase terminados), agora descartado, e em novembro de 1942 eles também, começaram a se equipar para construir Panteras, os primeiros veículos saindo da Daimler no começo de 1943. [ 7 ]

Машины на базе «Пантеры» [ править | править код ]

Jagdpanther (Sd.Kfz. 173) [ править | править код ]

После дебюта тяжёлого истребителя танков «Фердинанд» на Курской дуге руководство Министерства Вооружений Третьего рейха выдало заказ на разработку аналогичной по вооружению боевой машины на более технологичном и мобильном шасси. Наилучшим вариантом стало использование базы «Пантеры» для установки на неё бронированной рубки с длинноствольной 88-мм пушкой StuK43 L/71. Получившаяся САУ — истребитель танков получила название «Ягдпантера» и стала одной из лучших машин мира в своём классе. Лобовая броня «Ягдпантеры», как и у других немецких истребителей танков выполнена из листов «морской» брони, взятой из запасов ВМС. Броня довоенного производства, чем обеспечивалась высокая снарядостойкость лобовой проекции.

Bergepanther (Sd.Kfz. 179) [ править | править код ]

Для эвакуации с поля боя подбитых боевых машин под огневым воздействием противника на базе «Пантеры» была разработана специализированная бронированная ремонтно-эвакуационная машина (БРЭМ) Bergepanther. Вместо башни с вооружением на шасси «Пантеры» устанавливались открытая платформа, крановая стрела и лебёдка. Первые образцы вооружались 20-мм автоматической пушкой, последующие — 7,9-мм пулемётом M.G.34. Экипаж помимо командира и механика-водителя включал до десяти ремонтников. Bergepanther часто называется лучшей БРЭМ Второй мировой войны.

Первые 12 (№�-210136) машин, выпущенные MAN в июне 1943 года, представляли собой линейные танки, но без башни. Какое либо специальное оборудование, кроме тросов, на них отсутствовало.

Следующая партия машин была выпущена во второй половине 1943 на Henschel. Они имели уже полный комплект специального оборудования:

Все машины изготавливались на шасси Ausf D.

С февраля 1944 началось производство БРЭМ на шасси Ausf А. На Daimler-Benz собрали 40 — №(предположительно) 175501 — 175540

С марта 1944 к выпуску Bergepanther подключился Demag. По сентябрь там были собраны 110 машин на шасси Ausf А. В этом же месяце в производство пошли машины на шасси Ausf G (всего 107). Номера шасси неизвестны.

Итого с июня 1943 по февраль 1945—339 Bergepanther

Panzerbeobachtungswagen Panther (Sd.Kfz. 172) [ править | править код ]

Panzerbeobachtungswagen Panther — танк передовых артиллерийских наблюдателей. На машине отсутствовала пушка, вместо неё в невращающейся башне устанавливался деревянный макет. Вооружение состояло из установленного в маске пулемёта MG 34. Танк оснащался перископом командира кругового вращения TSR 1, широкоугольным перископом TSR 2, который мог подниматься на высоту до 430 мм над башней, двумя танковыми перископами TBF 2 и горизонтально-базовом стереоскопическим дальномером. Экипаж состоял из командира, наблюдателя, водителя и радиста. По одним источникам, был построен единственный экземпляр, по другим — серия в 41 машину. ⎖] ⎗]

Aufklärungspanzer Panther [ править | править код ]

Aufklärungspanzer Panther — проект лёгкого танка 1942-ого года на базе Пантеры, но из-за ненужности проекта от него было решено отказаться. Прототип построен не был.

На базе «Пантеры» [ править | править код ]

Шасси «Пантеры» предполагалось использовать для целого ряда боевых машин с различным артиллерийским вооружением, однако все эти проекты остались лишь на бумаге, ниже перечислены некоторые из них:

  • Самоходная 150-мм гаубица на шасси танка VK 3002 фирмы MAN, рабочее название Grille 15.
  • САУ, вооружённая 128-мм противотанковой пушкой PaK 44 L/55 — Grille 12.
  • САУ, вооружённая 150-мм тяжёлой полевой гаубицей sFH 18/4 фирмы «Рейнметалл» — Gerät 811.
  • САУ, вооружённая 150-мм тяжёлой полевой гаубицей sFH 43 фирмы «Рейнметалл» — Gerät 5-1530.
  • САУ, вооружённая 128-мм пушкой К-43 фирмы «Рейнметалл» — Gerät 5-1213.
  • Самоходная бронированная установка для запуска неуправляемых реактивных снарядов калибра 105 мм фирмы «Шкода» — 10,5-cm Škoda Panzerwerfer 44 ⎘]⎙] .

Проекты ЗСУ на базе «Panther» [ править | править код ]

С осени 1942 года началась проработка проектов зенитных самоходных установок (ЗСУ) на базе нового танка первым из них стала зенитная самоходная установка на шасси «Пантеры», вооружённая 88-мм зенитной пушкой FlaK 18 (позднее и FlaK 40). Однако проект был отклонён в пользу ЗСУ, вооружённых скорострельными малокалиберными автоматическими пушками. В декабре 1942 началось проектирование версий ЗСУ на базе «Пантеры», вооружённых 37-мм и 50—55-мм автоматическими пушками.

Лишь в январе—феврале 1944 года был разработан проект башни, вооружённой двумя 37-мм автоматическими пушками FlaK 44. Новая ЗСУ должна была называться Flakpanzer «Coelian». Однако был построен лишь макет ЗСУ. Прототип изготовлен не был.

Conditions of Business &ndash David Duggleby Auctioneers & Valuers


  1. 1. Introduction. The following notes are intended to assist bidders and buyers, particularly those that are inexperienced or new to our salerooms. All of our auctions are governed by our Conditions of Business incorporating the Terms of Consignment (primarily applicable to sellers), the Terms of Sale (primarily applicable to bidders and buyers) and any notices that are displayed in our salerooms or announced by the auctioneer at the auction. Our Conditions of Business are available for inspection at our salerooms and the Terms of Sale are printed in our auction catalogues. Our staff will be happy to help you if there is anything in our Conditions of Business that you do not fully understand.

Please make sure that you read our Terms of Sale set out in this catalogue or on our website carefully before bidding in the auction. If your bid is successful, you will be obliged to comply with our Terms of Sale.

  1. 2. Agency. As auctioneers we usually act on behalf of the seller whose identity, for reasons of confidentiality, is not normally disclosed. If you buy at auction your contract for the goods is with the seller, not with us as auctioneer.
  2. 3. Estimates. Estimates are designed to help you gauge what sort of sum might be involved for the purchase of a particular lot. Estimates may change and should not be thought of as the sale price. The lower estimate may represent the reserve price (the minimum price for which a lot may be sold) and will not be below the reserve price. Estimates do not include the buyer&rsquos premium or VAT (where chargeable). Estimates are prepared some time before the auction and may be altered by a saleroom notice or announcement by the auctioneer before the auction of the lot. They are not definitive.
  3. 4. Buyer's Premium. The Terms of Sale oblige you to pay a buyer's premium at 20% on the hammer price of each lot purchased. In addition, VAT is included in this premium (see below).
  4. 5. VAT. Items in our catalogue may be marked in the following ways:
    1. (*) indicates that VAT is payable by the buyer on the hammer price as well as being an element in the buyer's premium. VAT will be chargeable at the standard rate (presently 20%). This imposition of VAT is likely to be because the seller is registered for VAT within the European Union and is not operating the Dealers Margin Scheme or because VAT is due at 20% on importation into the UK.
    2. (**) indicates that the lot has been imported from outside the European Union. [These lots are liable to a reduced rate of VAT (5%) on the hammer price and buyer's premium)].
      1. Lots which do not have either of the above symbols have no VAT payable on the hammer price. This is because such lots are sold using the Auctioneers' Margin Scheme. The VAT included within the premium is not recoverable as input tax.
      1. whether an export licence is needed and
      2. if there is a prohibition on importing goods of that character e.g. because the goods contain prohibited materials such as ivory.
      1. Items marked as PAT tested are subject to a 5 day warranty from date of sale.
      2. For all other items, if you buy electrical goods for use you must ask a qualified electrician to check them for compliance with safety regulations before you use them.
      1. Any lots purchased via live auction service will be subject to an additional 3% commission charge + VAT, at the current rate, imposed on the hammer price (collected by David Duggleby Ltd on behalf of
      1. The forename(s) and the surname of the artist indicates in our opinion a work by the artist.
      2. The initials of the forename and the surname of the artist indicates in our opinion a work of the period of the artist which may be wholly or in part his work.
      3. The surname of the artist indicates in our opinion a work of the school or by one of the followers of the artist or in his style and of uncertain date.
      4. &lsquoBears signature&rsquo indicates in our opinion that this is not the signature of the artist.
      5. All other terms are self explanatory.
      6. Terms of Sale clause 12 also applies.


      Both the sale of goods at our auctions and your relationship with us are governed by the Terms of Consignment (primarily applicable to sellers), the Terms of Sale (primarily applicable to bidders and buyers) and any notices displayed in the saleroom or announced by us at the auction (collectively, the &ldquoConditions of Business&rdquo). The Terms of Consignment and Terms of Sale are available at our saleroom on request.

      Please read these Terms of Consignment carefully. Please note that if you (or another person acting on your behalf) provide goods to us to sell on your behalf at our auction, this signifies that you agree to and will comply with these Terms of Consignment.

      Please note that these Terms of Consignment relate to auctions held at our premises only. We have separate terms for online only auctions.

      1 Definitions and interpretation

      1.1 To make these Terms of Consignment easier to read, we have given the following words a specific meaning:

      means David Duggleby Auctioneers and Valuers, a partnership or company registered in England and Wales with registration number 4434386 and whose registered office is located at The Saleroom, Vine Street, Scarborough, North Yorkshire, YO11 1XN or its authorised auctioneer, as appropriate

      means a person who places a bid for Goods at our auction

      means the person who makes the highest bid for the Goods accepted by the Auctioneer

      means the commission that we charge you on the sale of the Goods as set out in Clause &lrm5 below

      means an individual acting for purposes which are wholly or mainly outside that individual&rsquos trade, business, craft or profession

      &ldquoConsumer Contracts Regulations&rdquo

      means the Consumer Contracts (Information, Cancellation and Additional Charges) Regulations 2013

      &ldquoDeliberate Forgery&rdquo

      means: (a) an imitation made with the intention of deceiving as to authorship, origin, date, age, period, culture or source (b) which is described in the catalogue as being the work of a particular creator without qualification and (c) which at the date of the auction had a value materially less than it would have had if it had been as described

      means the Financial Conduct Authority

      means the goods that you consign to us for sale at our auction

      &ldquoHammer Price&rdquo

      means the level of the highest bid for the Goods accepted by the Auctioneer by the fall of the hammer

      means the premium charged to the Buyer on the sale of the Goods in accordance with the Terms of Sale

      means the total of the Hammer Price, Premium and any applicable VAT

      means the Price less the Commission, the Premium, any expenses incurred to your account and any applicable VAT

      means the minimum price at which the Goods may be sold

      means the owner of the Goods and any agent who consigns the Goods for sale on the owner&rsquos behalf (if applicable)

      &ldquoTerms of Consignment&rdquo

      means these terms of consignment

      &ldquoTerms of Sale&rdquo

      means the terms of sale for bidders or buyers at our auctions

      means a Seller who is acting for purposes relating to that Seller&rsquos trade, business, craft or profession, whether acting personally or through another person acting in the trader&rsquos name or on the trader&rsquos behalf (such as an agent and/or the Auctioneer)

      means any value added tax or equivalent sales tax and

      In these Terms of Consignment the words &ldquoyou&rdquo, &ldquoyours&rdquo, etc. refer to the Seller. The words &ldquowe&rdquo, &ldquous&rdquo, etc. refer to the Auctioneer. If the consignment of Goods to us is made by an agent we assume that you (as owner of the Goods) have authorised the consignment and authorised the agent to contract on your behalf. All obligations that apply to the Seller under these Terms of Consignment shall apply to the owner of the Goods and their agent, jointly and separately. Any reference to a &lsquoClause&rsquo is to a clause of these Terms of Consignment unless stated otherwise.

      2 Information that we are required to give to Consumers

      2.1 A description of the main characteristics of the auction-related services that we are providing to you as set out in these Terms of Consignment or otherwise agreed with you in writing.

      2.2 Our name, address and contact details as set out in these Terms of Consignment and/or on our Website.

      2.3 The rate at which we will charge you the Commission plus any applicable VAT on the sale of the Goods as set out in Clause 5.

      2.4 The fee that we will charge you plus any applicable VAT as set out in Clause 18 if either the Goods are unsold at auction or the Goods are withdrawn by you from the auction after the Goods have been catalogued and/or marketed by us prior to the auction in any way.

      2.5 The arrangements for collection of any unsold Goods as set out in Clauses 18 and 20 and terms regarding payment of any Proceeds due to you set out in Clause 17.

      2.6 If you have any complaints, please get in contact with us using the contact details set out on our website.

      3 Procedure for consigning Goods for sale at auction

      3.1 If you consign Goods to us for sale at auction, you will need to provide us with the following information about you, in a form acceptable to us:

      3.1.1 Your legal name and proof of identity

      3.1.2 Information about the Goods (as set out in Clause 12)

      3.1.3 Your bank account details

      3.1.4 Your address and contact details

      3.1.5 Your VAT registration number (if applicable) and

      3.1.6 Your confirmation of whether you are selling the Goods as a Trader or as a Consumer.

      3.2 If you do not provide us with, or we are not satisfied with any of the above information, we may refuse to accept consignment of your Goods for sale in our auction.

      3.3 You must provide the Goods to us by any stated deadline (at your expense). We may be able to assist you with this process but any liability incurred to a carrier for haulage charges is solely your responsibility.

      4 The contract between you and the Buyer

      4.1 The contract between you and the Buyer will be formed when the hammer falls accepting the highest bid for the Goods at the auction.

      4.2 You may directly enforce any terms in the Terms of Sale against a Buyer and/or a Bidder to the extent that you have suffered damages and/or loss as a result of the Buyer and/or the Bidder&rsquos breach of the Terms of Sale.

      4.3 If you breach these Terms of Consignment, you may be responsible for damages and/or losses suffered by a Buyer, Bidder and/ or by us. If we are contacted by a Buyer and/or a Bidder who wishes to bring a claim against you, we may in our discretion provide the Buyer and/or Bidder with information or assistance in relation to that claim.

      4.4 We normally act as an agent only and will not have any responsibility for default by you or the Buyer.

      We will charge you a commission on the sale of the Goods calculated as a percentage of the Hammer Price at the following rates:

      Antiques and Interiors Featuring Specialist Sections

      15% + VAT (minimum charge £4.00 + VAT)

      15% + VAT up to £1000, 10% + VAT thereafter (per lot)

      6 Loss and Damage to Goods

      6.1 We are not authorised by the FCA to provide insurance to you. However, subject only to Clauses 6.4 and 6.5, we accept liability for Goods from the time we take possession of the Goods until title passes to the Buyer.

      6.2 Our liability for Goods is limited to our lower pre-sale estimate for the lot before the sale, or the Hammer Price if the lot has sold, or to the Reserve if the lot is unsold.

      6.3 To justify accepting liability for Goods as set out above, we will charge you 1% of the Hammer Price plus VAT.

      6.4 The liability accepted by us in Clause 6.1 does not include any liability for loss or damage to the Goods that is caused by or results from: (i) any inherent vice or defect affecting the Goods (ii) acts of God, flood, drought, earthquake or other natural disaster (iii) acts of terrorism, civil commotion, riots or war or (iv) nuclear, chemical or biological contamination.

      6.5 If you (or your agent) instruct us in writing not to assume liability for Goods, the Goods remain entirely at your risk unless and until the Goods pass to the Buyer or are collected by you or on your behalf. In this case Clauses 6.1 - 6.4 will not apply.

      7 Photographs and Website

      You will pay for the cost of the photographs of your Goods produced for the auction catalogue and website. The copyright in such photographs will be owned by us, along with the text of the auction catalogue.

      Antique and Interiors Featuring Specialist Sections - £2.50 + VAT per lot

      Picture Sales - £10 + VAT per lot

      8 Minimum bids and our discretion

      Goods will normally be offered subject to a Reserve agreed between you and us before the auction in accordance with Clause 9. We may sell Goods below the Reserve provided that we account to you for the same sale proceeds as you would have received had the Reserve been the Hammer Price. If you specifically give us a &ldquodiscretion&rdquo we may accept a bid of up to 10% below the formal Reserve.

      9.1 Reserves must be reasonable and may not exceed our lower pre-sale estimate for that lot. We may decline to offer Goods which, in our opinion, would be subject to an unreasonably high reserve (in which case the Goods carry the storage and insurance charges set out in these Terms of Consignment).

      9.2 Once we have agreed a Reserve, this cannot be changed except with your and our consent.

      9.3 Where a Reserve has been agreed only we may bid on your behalf and only up to one bid below the Reserve (if any) and you may in no circumstances bid personally or ask anyone else to bid on your behalf.

      10.1 You must ensure any electrical items that you wish to consign (unless they are antiques) to us for sale are in full working order and fit for purpose. These will be subject to a PAT test at £4.00 per item plus VAT, whether passed/failed.

      10.2 If we notify you that we will not accept uncertified electrical Goods, you must remove such Goods promptly at your expense following such notification. If you do not collect the Goods within seven days of our written notice to do so, we may dispose of the Goods at your expense.

      If in our opinion any of your Goods, in particular those which are soft furnishings, infringe safety regulations, we will not offer these Goods for sale. You must remove such Goods at your expense. If you do not collect such Goods within seven days of our written notice to do so, we may dispose of the Goods at your expense.

      12 Warranties and information about the Goods

      12.1 You must provide us with all information that you have relating to the provenance, export/import history, condition, attribution and authenticity of the Goods (and any additional information that may be relevant).

      12.2 In addition to any warranties implied by law, you warrant to us and the Buyer that:

      12.2.1 any information that you provide in relation to the Goods is complete, correct and up‑to‑date

      12.2.2 the Goods will match any description of the Goods that you provide to us

      12.2.3 as far as you are aware, the main characteristics of the Goods set out in the auction catalogue (as amended by any notice displayed in the saleroom or announced by us at the auction) are correct.

      12.2.4 to the best of your knowledge, the Goods have been lawfully imported and lawfully and permanently exported as required by the laws of any country in which the Goods were located required declarations upon the export and import of the Goods have been properly made and any duties and taxes on the export and import of the Goods have been paid and

      12.2.5 you will pay all taxes and duties potentially due on the sale of the Goods.

      12.3 You must let us know promptly, and in any event before the auction, if you find out that any of the information you have provided to us relating to the Goods is incorrect or incomplete and/or if the Goods do not match the description that you provided to us or the main characteristics of the Goods set out in the auction catalogue.

      12.4 Any information that you provide in relation to the Goods may form part of the contract between both of us and the Buyer and you acknowledge that the Buyer may have a statutory right to reject the Goods if the information provided is incorrect.

      12.5 If we have to refund the price of any Goods to the Buyer due to the Goods being a Deliberate Forgery, you must promptly, and in any event within fourteen days, reimburse to us any Proceeds that we have transferred to you for those Goods following receipt of our written notice requesting you to do so.

      13 Transfer of ownership of the Goods

      You warrant and undertake to us and the Buyer that you are the true owner of the Goods (or are properly authorised by the true owner to sell the Goods on the owner&rsquos behalf) and you currently have and will have the right to sell the Goods to the Buyer with good and marketable title free of any third party rights or claims at the time when ownership of the Goods is to be transferred.

      You will indemnify and keep us fully indemnified against any and all liability, loss, damage, costs (including reasonable legal fees and any VAT in relation to such fees) and expenses which we may incur or suffer as a result of any breach of Clauses 12 or 13 by you or anyone acting on your behalf, including without limitation, if we are required to refund the price of any Goods to the Buyer as a result of your breach of these clauses.

      You agree that the Goods will be sold to the Buyer in accordance with our Terms of Sale, a copy of which will be displayed in the saleroom and printed in our auction catalogue.

      16 Authority to deduct commission and expenses and retain premium and interest

      You authorise us to deduct our Commission at the stated rate and all expenses incurred on your account from the Hammer Price, plus any applicable VAT. You consent to our right to charge the Buyer and retain beneficially the Premium plus any applicable VAT paid by the Buyer in accordance with our Terms of Sale and any interest earned on the sale proceeds until the date of settlement.

      17.1 Provided that the Buyer has paid for the Goods, we will usually pay the net sum due to you within twenty days of the last day of the auction (by crossed cheque to the seller).

      17.2 If the Buyer has not paid for the Goods, we will not submit payment to you. In this case no settlement will be made. We will however discuss with you the rights that we may exercise under Clause 9 of our Terms of Sale in relation to a Buyer&rsquos failure to pay. We will not release the Goods to the Buyer until we have received payment in full of the Price for the Goods.

      17.3 You must notify us in writing if your bank account details change. We will not be responsible for any payments made to the incorrect bank account if this is because you have not provided us with the correct bank account details.

      17.4 If we make payments to your bank account in error, we may request reimbursement by sending you an invoice.

      17.5 We may deduct any sums that you owe to us from the Proceeds.

      18 Unsold and withdrawn items

      18.1 If the Goods are unsold at auction, you authorise us to negotiate a sale by private treaty for up to 14 days following the last day of the auction. In this case you will pay to us the same charges as if such Goods had been sold at auction and, so far as appropriate, these Terms of Consignment will apply to any such sale.

      18.2 In addition to Clause 18.1, we may, with your consent, re-offer unsold Goods at a future auction (or by private treaty thereafter as set out in Clause 18.1 above) but we may recommend a variation in estimates or reserve. Where, in our opinion, Goods are unsaleable, we will notify you and you must collect such Goods from the saleroom within seven days of the date of our notice to do so. If you fail to collect such Goods promptly, we may charge you reasonable storage charges at a daily rate.

      18.3 You will pay us a photography and website fee on any Goods that are unsold at the auction and fail to sell by private treaty as described in Clause 18.1.

      18.4 You will pay us a charge of 15% of the reserve/ lower estimate, whichever is lowest, (minimum charge £15) for the lotplus VAT on any Goods that are withdrawn from the auction after being catalogued and/or marketed by us prior to the auction in any way.

      19 Withdrawal of the Goods by us

      19.1 We may (acting reasonably) at our discretion at any time withdraw your Goods from our auction:

      19.1.1 for legal, reputational or operational reasons (including if you fail to provide evidence to verify your identity or your title to the Goods to our satisfaction)

      19.1.2 if we reasonably believe that you may be, or are about to be, in breach of these Terms of Consignment or

      19.1.3 if we reasonably believe the Goods to be a Deliberate Forgery.

      20.1 We have no liability for Goods that you deliver to our saleroom without sufficient sale instructions. We reserve the right to charge you a minimum warehousing charge of £1 per lot per day plus any applicable VAT.

      20.2 We will notify you to ask you to remove any of your unsold or withdrawn Goods. Unsold and withdrawn Goods will be subject to the charges set out in Clause 20.1 above if you do not remove them within five days of the date of our notification requesting you to do so.

      20.3 If you do not remove your unsold or withdrawn Goods within thirty days of the date of our notification we may either: (a) sell such Goods and set off charges from any net proceeds of sale or (b) at your expense dispose of such Goods.

      21.1 We will not be liable to you for any loss of opportunity or disappointment suffered as a result of participating in our auction.

      21.2 In addition, neither we nor the Buyer shall be responsible to you and you shall not be responsible to the Buyer or us for any other loss or damage that any of us suffer that is not a foreseeable result of any of us not complying with the Conditions of Business. Loss or damage is foreseeable if it is obvious that it will happen or if at the time of the sale of the Lot, we, you and the Seller knew it might happen.

      21.3 Subject to Clause 21.4, if we are found to be liable to you for any reason (including, amongst others, if we are found to be negligent, in breach of contract or to have made a misrepresentation), our liability will be limited to the Proceeds due for the Goods if sold or the Reserve if unsold.

      21.4 Notwithstanding the above, nothing in these Terms of Consignment limits the liability of us or our employees or agents for:

      21.4.1 death or personal injury resulting from negligence (as defined in the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977)

      21.4.2 fraudulent misrepresentation or

      21.4.3 any liability which cannot be excluded by law.

      22.1 All notices between you and us regarding these Terms of Consignment must be in writing and signed by or on behalf of the party giving it.

      22.2 Any notice referred in Clause 22.1 may be given:

      22.2.1 by delivering it by hand

      22.2.2 by first class pre-paid post or Recorded Delivery or

      22.2.3 by email, provided that a copy is also sent by pre-paid post or Recorded Delivery.

      22.3.1 by hand or registered post:

      1. to us, at our address set out in these Terms of Consignment or at our registered office address appearing on our Website and
      2. to you, at the last postal address that you have given to us as your contact address in writing.
      1. to you, by sending the notice to any email address that you have given to us as your contact email address in writing.

      22.4 Notices will be deemed to have been received:

      22.4.1 if delivered by hand, on the day of delivery or

      22.4.2 if sent by first class pre-paid post or Recorded Delivery, two business days after posting, exclusive of the day of posting or

      22.4.3 if sent by email, at the time of transmission unless sent after 17.00 in the place of receipt in which case they will be deemed to have been received on the next business day in the place of receipt (provided that a copy has also been sent by pre-paid post or Recorded Delivery as set out in Clause 22.2.3.

      22.5 Any notice or communication given under these Terms of Consignment will not be validly given if sent by fax, any form of messaging via social media or text message.

      We will hold and process any personal data in relation to you in accordance with our current privacy policy, a copy of which is available on our website or by request.

      24.1 Each of the clauses of these Terms of Consignment operates separately. If any court or relevant authority decides that any of them are unlawful, the remaining clauses will remain in full force and effect.

      24.2 We may change these Terms of Consignment from time to time, without notice to you. Please read these Terms of Consignment carefully, as they may be different from the last time you read them.

      24.3 Except as otherwise stated in these Terms of Consignment, each of our rights and remedies: (a) are in addition to and not exclusive of any other rights or remedies under these Terms of Consignment or general law and (b) may be waived only in writing and specifically. Delay in exercising or non-exercise of any right under these Terms of Consignment is not a waiver of that or any other right. Partial exercise of any right under these Terms of Consignment will not preclude any further or other exercise of that right or any other right under these Terms of Consignment. Waiver of a breach of any term of these Terms of Consignment will not operate as a waiver of breach of any other term or any subsequent breach of that term.

      24.4 These Terms of Consignment are between you and us. No person other than you, the Buyer or us will have any rights to enforce any of these Terms of Consignment.

      24.5 These Terms of Consignment and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with them (including any non-contractual claims or disputes) shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and the parties irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts.


      Both the sale of goods at our auctions and your relationship with us are governed by the Terms of Consignment (primarily applicable to sellers) the Terms of Sale (primarily applicable to bidders and buyers) and any notices displayed in the saleroom or announced by us at the auction (collectively, the &ldquoConditions of Business&rdquo). The Terms of Consignment and Terms of Sale are available at our saleroom on request.

      Please read these Terms of Sale carefully. Please note that if you register to bid and/or bid at auction this signifies that you agree to and will comply with these Terms of Sale.

      Please note that these Terms of Sale relate to auctions held at our premises only. We have separate terms for online only auctions.

      1 Definitions and interpretation

      1.1 To make these Terms of Sale easier to read, we have given the following words a specific meaning:

      means David Duggleby Auctioneers and Valuers, a partnership or company registered in England and Wales with registration number 4434386 and whose registered office is located at The Saleroom, Vine Street, Scarborough, North Yorkshire, YO11 1XN or its authorised auctioneer, as appropriate

      means a person participating in bidding at the auction

      means the person who makes the highest bid for a Lot accepted by the Auctioneer

      &ldquoDeliberate Forgery&rdquo

      means: (a) an imitation made with the intention of deceiving as to authorship, origin, date, age, period, culture or source (b) which is described in the catalogue as being the work of a particular creator without qualification and (c) which at the date of the auction had a value materially less than it would have had if it had been as described

      &ldquoHammer Price&rdquo

      means the level of the highest bid for a Lot accepted by the Auctioneer by the fall of the hammer

      means the goods that we offer for sale at our auctions

      means the premium that we will charge you on your purchase of a Lot to be calculated as set out in Clause 4

      means the minimum hammer price at which a Lot may be sold

      &ldquoSale Proceeds&rdquo

      means the net amount due to the Seller

      means the persons who consign Lots for sale at our auctions

      &ldquoTerms of Consignment&rdquo

      means the terms on which we agree to offer Lots for sale in our auctions as agent on behalf of Sellers

      &ldquoTerms of Sale&rdquo

      means these terms of sale, as amended or updated from time to time

      &ldquoTotal Amount Due&rdquo

      means the Hammer Price for a Lot, the Premium, any applicable artist&rsquos resale right royalty, any VAT due and any additional charges payable by a defaulting buyer under these Terms of Sale

      means a Seller who is acting for purposes relating to that Seller&rsquos trade, business, craft or profession, whether acting personally or through another person acting in the trader&rsquos name or on the trader&rsquos behalf

      means Value Added Tax or any equivalent sales tax and

      In these Terms of Sale the words 'you', 'yours', etc. refer to you as the Buyer. The words &ldquowe&rdquo, &ldquous&rdquo, etc. refer to the Auctioneer. Any reference to a &lsquoClause&rsquo is to a clause of these Terms of Sale unless stated otherwise.

      2 Information that we are required to give to Consumers

      2.1 A description of the main characteristics of each Lot as contained in the auction catalogue.

      2.2 Our name, address and contact details as set out herein, in our auction catalogues and/or on our Website.

      2.3 The price of the Goods and arrangements for payment as described in Clauses 4, 5, 7 and 8.

      2.4 The arrangements for collection of the Goods as set out in Clauses 8 and 9.

      2.5 Your right to return a Lot and receive a refund if the Lot is a Deliberate Forgery as set out in Clause 13.

      2.6 We and Trader Sellers have a legal duty to supply any Lots to you in accordance with these Terms of Sale.

      2.7 If you have any complaints, please send them to us directly at the address set out on our Website.

      3 Bidding procedures and the Buyer

      3.1 You must register your details with us before bidding and provide us with any requested proof of identity and billing information, in a form acceptable to us. You must also satisfy any security arrangements we have in place before entering the auction room to view or bid.

      3.2 We strongly recommend that you attend the auction in person. You are responsible for your decision to bid for a particular Lot. If you bid on a Lot, including by telephone and online bidding, or by placing a commission bid, we assume that you have carefully inspected the Lot and satisfied yourself regarding its condition.

      3.3 If you instruct us in writing, we may execute commission bids on your behalf. Neither we nor our employees or agents will be responsible for any failure to execute your commission bid, unless our failure to do so is unreasonable. Where two or more commission bids at the same level are recorded we have the right to prefer the first bid made (where this can be reasonably ascertained) by extending this bid by one increment.

      3.4 The Bidder placing the highest bid for a Lot accepted by the Auctioneer will be the Buyer at the Hammer Price. Any dispute about a bid will be settled at our discretion. We may reoffer the Lot during the auction or may settle the dispute in another way. We will act reasonably when deciding how to settle the dispute.

      3.5 Bidders will be deemed to act as principals, even if the Bidder is acting as an agent for a third party.

      3.6 We may bid on Lots on behalf of the Seller up to one bid below the Reserve.

      3.7 We may refuse to accept any bid if it is reasonable for us to do so.

      3.8 Bidding increments will be at our sole discretion (but will be in line with standard auction practice).

      1. the Hammer Price
      2. a premium of 16.67% of the Hammer Price
      3. any internet premiums payable on the sale of the Lot
      4. any artist&rsquos resale right royalty payable on the sale of the Lot and
      5. any VAT due.

      5.1 You shall be liable for the payment of any VAT applicable on the Hammer Price and premium due for a Lot. Please see the symbols used in the auction catalogue for that Lot and the &ldquoInformation for Buyers&rdquo in our auction catalogue for further information.

      5.2 We will charge VAT at the current rate at the date of the auction.

      6 The contract between you and the Seller

      6.1 The contract for the purchase of the Lot between you and the Seller will be formed when the hammer falls accepting the highest bid for the Lot at the auction.

      6.2 You may directly enforce any terms in the Terms of Consignment against a Seller to the extent that you suffer damages and/or loss as a result of the Seller&rsquos breach of the Terms of Consignment.

      6.3 If you breach these Terms of Sale, you may be responsible for damages and/or losses suffered by a Seller or us. If we are contacted by a Seller who wishes to bring a claim against you, we may in our discretion provide the Seller with information or assistance in relation to that claim.

      6.4 We normally act as an agent only and will not have any responsibility for default by you or the Seller (unless we are the Seller of the Lot).

      7.1 Immediately following your successful bid on a Lot you will:

      7.1.1 give to us, if not already provided to our satisfaction, proof of identity in a form acceptable to us (and any other information that we require in order to comply with our anti-money laundering obligations) and

      7.1.2 pay to us the Total Amount Due in cash (for which there is an upper limit of 15,000 euros equivalent) or in any other way that we agree to accept payment.

      7.2 If you owe us any money, we may use any payment made by you to repay these debts.

      8 Title and collection of purchases

      8.1 Once you have paid us in full the Total Amount Due for any Lot, ownership of that Lot will transfer to you. You may not claim or collect a Lot until you have paid for it.

      8.2 You will (at your own expense) collect any Lots that you have purchased and paid for either:

      8.2.1 not later than five business days following the day of the auction or

      8.2.2 not later than five business days following the date that we have received payment of the Total Amount Due in cleared funds, if later.

      8.3 If you do not collect the Lot within this time period, you will be responsible for any reasonable removal, storage and insurance charges in relation to that Lot.

      8.4 Risk of loss or damage to the Lot will pass to you when you (or your agents) take physical possession of the Lot.

      8.5 If you do not collect the Lot that you have paid for within ninety days after the auction, we may sell the Lot. We will pay the proceeds of any such sale to you, but will deduct any storage charges or other sums that we have incurred in the storage and sale of the Lot. We reserve the right to charge you a selling commission at our standard rates on any such resale of the Lot.

      9 Remedies for non-payment or failure to collect purchases

      9.1 Please do not bid on a Lot if you do not intend to buy it. If your bid is successful, these Terms of Sale will apply to you. This means that you will have to carry out your obligations set out in these Terms of Sale. If you do not comply with these Terms of Sale we may (acting on behalf of the Seller and ourselves) pursue one or more of the following measures:

      9.1.1 take action against you for damages for breach of contract

      9.1.2 reverse the sale of the Lot to you and/or any other Lots sold by us to you

      9.1.3 resell the Lot by auction or private treaty (in which case you will have to pay any difference between the price you should have paid for the Lot and the price we sell it for as well as the charges outlined in Clause 8.5). Please note that if we sell the Lot for a higher amount than your winning bid, the extra money will belong to the Seller

      9.1.4 remove, store and insure the Lot at your expense

      9.1.5 if you do not pay us within five business days of your successful bid, we may charge interest at a rate not exceeding 1.5% per month on the total amount due

      9.1.6 keep that Lot or any other Lot sold to you until you pay the Total Amount Due

      9.1.7 reject or ignore bids from you or your agent at future auctions or impose conditions before we accept bids from you and/or

      9.1.8 if we sell any Lots for you, use the money made on these Lots to repay any amount you owe us.

      9.2 We will act reasonably when exercising our rights under Clause 9.1. We will contact you before exercising these rights and try to work with you to correct any non-compliance by you with these Terms of Sale.

      Although we take reasonable precautions regarding health and safety, you are on our premises at your own risk. Please note the lay-out of the premises and security arrangements. Neither we nor our employees or agents are responsible for the safety of you or your property when you visit our premises, unless you suffer any injury to your person or damage to your property as a result of our, our employees&rsquo or our agents&rsquo negligence.

      11.1 The Seller warrants to us and to you that:

      11.1.1 the Seller is the true owner of the Lot for sale or is authorised by the true owner to offer and sell the lot at auction

      11.1.2 the Seller is able to transfer good and marketable title to the Lot to you free from any third party rights or claims and

      11.1.3 as far as the Seller is aware, the main characteristics of the Lot set out in the auction catalogue (as amended by any notice displayed in the saleroom or announced by the Auctioneer at the auction) are correct.

      11.2 If, after you have placed a successful bid and paid for a Lot, any of the warranties above are found not to be true, please notify us in writing. Neither we nor the Seller will be liable to pay you any sums over and above the Total Amount Due and we will not be responsible for any inaccuracies in the information provided by the Seller except as set out below.

      11.3 Please note that many of the Lots that you may bid on at our auction are second-hand.

      11.4 If a Lot is not second-hand and you purchase the Lot as a Consumer from a Seller that is a Trader, a number of additional terms may be implied by law in addition to the Seller&rsquos warranties set out at Clause 11.1 (in particular under the Consumer Rights Act 2015). These Terms of Sale do not seek to exclude your rights under law as they relate to the sale of these Lots.

      11.5 Save as expressly set out above, all other warranties, conditions or other terms which might have effect between the Seller and you, or us and you, or be implied or incorporated by statue, common law or otherwise are excluded.

      12 Descriptions and condition

      12.1 Our descriptions of the Lot will be based on: (a) information provided to us by the Seller of the Lot (for which we are not liable) and (ii) our opinion (although it is likely that we will not be able to carry out a detailed inspection of each Lot).

      12.2 We will give you a number of opportunities to view and inspect the Lots before the auction. You (and any independent consultants acting on your behalf) must satisfy yourself about the accuracy of any description of a Lot. We shall not be responsible for any failure by you or your consultants to properly inspect a Lot.

      12.3 Representations or statements by us as to authorship, genuineness, origin, date, age, provenance, condition or estimated selling price involve matters of opinion. We undertake that any such opinion will be honestly and reasonably held and accept liability for opinions given negligently or fraudulently.

      12.4 Please note that Lots (in particular second-hand Lots) are unlikely to be in perfect condition. Lots are sold &ldquoas is&rdquo (i.e. as you see them at the time of the auction). Neither we nor the Seller accept any liability for the condition of second-hand Lots or for any condition issues affecting a Lot if such issues are included in the description of a Lot in the auction catalogue (or in any saleroom notice) and/ or which the inspection of a Lot by the Buyer ought to have revealed.

      13.1 You may return any Lot which is found to be a Deliberate Forgery to us within 14 days of the auction provided that you return the Lot to us in the same condition as when it was released to you, accompanied by a written statement identifying the Lot from the relevant catalogue description and a written statement of defects.

      13.2 If we are reasonably satisfied that the Lot is a Deliberate Forgery we will refund the money paid by you for the Lot (including any Premium and applicable VAT) provided that if:

      13.2.1 the catalogue description reflected the accepted view of experts as at the date of the auction or

      13.2.2 you personally are not able to transfer good and marketable title in the Lot to us,

      you will have no right to a refund under this Clause 13.2.

      13.3 If you have sold the Lot to another person, we will only be liable to refund the price that you paid for the Lot. We will not be responsible for repaying any additional money you may have made from selling the Lot.

      13.4 Your right to return a Lot that is a Deliberate Forgery does not affect your legal rights and is in addition to any other right or remedy provided by law or by these Terms of Sale.

      14.1 We will not be liable for any loss of opportunity or disappointment suffered as a result of participating in our auction.

      14.2 In addition to the above, neither we nor the Seller shall be responsible to you and you shall not be responsible to the Seller or us for any other loss or damage that any of us suffer that is not a foreseeable result of any of us not complying with the Conditions of Business. Loss or damage is foreseeable if it is obvious that it will happen or if at the time of the sale of the Lot, we, you and the Seller knew it might happen.

      14.3 Subject to Clause 14.4, if we are found to be liable to you for any reason (including, amongst others, if we are found to be negligent, in breach of contract or to have made a misrepresentation), our liability will be limited to the total purchase price paid by you to us for any Lot.

      14.4 Notwithstanding the above, nothing in these Terms of Sale shall limit our liability (or that of our employees or agents) for:

      14.4.1 death or personal injury resulting from negligence (as defined in the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977)

      14.4.2 fraudulent misrepresentation or

      14.4.3 any liability which cannot be excluded by law.

      15.1 All notices between you and us regarding these Terms of Sale must be in writing and signed by or on behalf of the party giving it.

      Panthern sattes in i strid för första gången vid slaget vid Kursk på östfronten i juli 1943. Den tyska offensiven var först planerad till våren 1943 men försenades bland annat för att Pantherstridsvagnen skulle hinna bli klar och kunna användas. Alla vagnar som deltog i slaget var samlade i två pansarbataljoner Panzer-Abteilung 51 och Panzer-Abteilung 52 som tillsammans utgjorde Panzer-Brigade 10, denna brigad var underställd Panzergrenadier-Division Großdeutschland. [ 2 ] Vid Kursk plågades Panthern av diverse tekniska fel som gjorde att den ofta gick sönder. Däremot hade den mycket långa 75 mm kanonen utmärkt prestanda. När felen efterhand blev avhjälpta blev Panthern andra världskrigets troligtvis bästa stridsvagn med en utmärkt kombination av stor eldkraft, gott skydd och hög rörlighet. Pantherstridsvagnen sattes in på öst- och västfronten samt i Italien i efterhand allt större antal. Trots detta tillverkades den i för få exemplar (drygt 6 000) för få någon strategisk inverkan på utgången av kriget.

      Panthern var överlägsen den tyngre Tiger I i följande aspekter bättre eldkraft (tack vare den mycket långa kanonen), bättre frontalt pansarskydd (tack vare det sluttande pansaret) och bättre rörlighet (tack vare lägre vikt). Dessutom var den billigare och enklare att tillverka än Tiger I.

      Tyskarna kopierade mycket från T-34 när de byggde Pantherstridsvagnen. Bland annat utrustades stridsvagnen med sluttande frontpansar vilket gjorde att sprängverkan från granater som den blev beskjuten med minskades väsentligt. Granaterna rikoschetterade iväg istället för att få en direkt träff. Idag har de flesta stridsvagnar sluttande frontpansar. Detta var en av Pantherns största fördelar i strid - fiendens stridsvagnskanoner, till exempel på T-34 och Sherman, hade en mycket liten chans att penetrera Pantherns tjocka och sluttande frontpansar medan Pantherns mycket långa 75 mm kanon med mycket hög utgångshastighet på granaten ofta slog ut fiendens stridsvagnar med ett skott. De västallierade räknade med att det gick åt tre egna stridsvagnar för att slå ut en Panther. Om Panthers besköts från sidan kunde den dock relativt lätt slås ut.

      Redan i december 1943 hade utvecklarna farhågor att sidopansaret var för svagt för att stå emot de pansarvärnsvapen Panthern kunde möta på östfronten. Därför inledes försök där stålskivor monterades på sidorna för att öka skyddsnivån. Om försöken inte skulle falla väl ut fanns det planer på att styra om produktionen helt mot en ny vagn med namn Panther II, som enligt ritningarna skulle ha 60 mm tjock sidopansar. Försöken med det extra skiktade pansaret i form av stålskivor på sidorna av Panther blev en framgång. Tester visade att det extra pansaret stod emot direktträffar från 75 mm spränggranater så väl som pansarvärnsgevär. Framgången med det skiktade pansaret på sidorna räddade kvar Panther stridsvagnen som förblev i produktion kriget ut. [ 3 ]

      Fram till 1944 kallades den för Panzerkampfwagen V Panther och hade den militära beteckningen Sd.Kfz. 171. Den 27 februari 1944 beslöt Adolf Hitler att stridsvagnen enbart skulle benämnas som Panther.

      Under 1943-44 utrustades gradvis en bataljon per pansarregemente i varje tysk pansardivision med Panther i den takt som produktionshastigheten medgav. Den andra bataljonen hade oftast senare modeller av Panzer IV. Detta innebar att flera tyska pansardivisioner bara hade en bataljon med Panzer III/Panzer IV under hösten 1943-vintern 43-44 eftersom den andra bataljonen var i Tyskland och utrustades/utbildades med Panthern. Efterhand återvände Panther-bataljonerna till sina respektive divisioner, där det naturligtvis fanns ett mycket stort behov av dem. Rätt använda var förband utrustade med Panther mycket slagkraftiga, inte minst på östfronten, där vagnen var överlägsen den ryska T-34. Om Panther-vagnar sattes in i tillräckligt stort antal och under befäl av en skicklig chef kunde effekterna på slagfältet bli stora. Ett exempel (bland många) är Schwere Panzer Regiment Bäke som bestod av en bataljon med Panther och en bataljon med Tiger I som sattes in under striderna vid Korsun-Tjerkassy-fickan 1944.

      Senare delen av 1944 var Panthern tyskarnas vanligaste stridsvagn vid sidan av Panzer IV. Panthern sattes in i strid på öst- och västfronten samt i Italien. De flesta tyska pansardivisioner både i armén och Waffen-SS var utrustade med Panther-stridsvagnar från och med sommaren 1944.

      De sista krigsmånaderna experimenterade tyskarna med Aktiv IR för mörkerstrid och ett mindre antal Panther-stridsvagnar utrustades med Aktiv IR (fotografier finns som visar detta). Enligt vissa källor sattes IR-utrustade Panthrar in i strid under Ardenneroffensiven 1944 och i Ungern 1945. Möjligen tenderar efterkrigslitteraturen att överdriva antalet IR-utrustade Panthrar.

      Även om Panthern var en mycket bra stridsvagn är det tveksamt om tyskarna gjorde rätt att i satsa på ett sådant relativt dyrt, komplicerat och underhållskrävande vapen som Panther. Sannolikt hade man fått ut mer effekt om man istället satsat på en lättare och enklare stridsvagn med "tillräckligt bra" prestanda som man kunnat producera i fler exemplar, till exempel Panzer IV.


      Den runda kanonskölden som sitter vid eldrörets bas kunde, om den träffades på den nedre delen, få den inkommande projektilen att rikoschettera neråt mot taket till stridsutrymmet. Takets pansar var endast 16 mm tjock och kunde penetreras av en rikoschett. Detta hände vid flera tillfällen och resulterade ofta i att föraren och signalisten blev skadade eller dödade. Från september 1944 monterades en modifierad kanonsköld på Ausf. G (Se varianter nedan) som hade en rak kant nertill i stället för en rundad vilket avhjälpte problemet. Den nya kanonskölden fasades in i produktionen i mån av tillgång, vilket medförde att många Panther Ausf. G rullade ut från fabrikerna med den runda kanonskölden monterad.

      Sidopansaret på tornet var 45 mm tjockt och vinklat 25 grader. Det gjorde tornet sårbart för beskjutning från i stort sett alla fientliga stridsvagnar, i från alla praktiska stridsavstånd. (t.o.m över 1000 meter). Denna brist bedömdes som så pass avgörande att det utvecklades en Ausf. F-modell av Panthern med samma chassi som Ausf. G, men med ett nytt torn som hade en annan utformning, bl.a. med 60 mm sidopansar. Ausf. F-tornet hann produceras innan krigsslutet men det är inte bekräftat om det någonsin användes i strid.

      Stridsvagnsbesättningarna utförde diverse reglementsvidriga ändringar på sina stridsvagnar för att öka skyddsnivån. Bland annat så svetsades reservlänkar till larvbandet på sidorna av tornet. I somliga fall har även bärhjul svetsas på tornet eller på sidorna av vagnen för att ge extra skydd. [ 4 ]

      Kraftöverföring (Slutväxel)

      Ett problem som följde Panthern genom alla versioner var att transmissionen inte hade god hållbarhet. Livslängden var generellt ganska kort och krävde ett tätt underhåll för att fungera. Man gjorde förbättringar i transmissionen under samtliga versioner men problemet blev aldrig riktigt åtgärdat. Underlaget vagnen körde på påverkade hållbarheten på kraftöverföringen mycket. Framförallt när Panthern backade i lerigt underlag och gjorde kraftfulla svängar så tenderade kraftöverföringen att gå i sönder. Den 5 mars 1944 rapporterar Heinz Guderian att tillförlitligheten på kraftöverföringen hos Panther-stridsvagnarna är acceptabel. Vid tidpunkten för rapporten var marken frusen på östfronten. Den 22 april 1944 inkommer en ny rapport. Marken har då töat och det är djup lera där stridsvagnarna verkar. Man noterar bl.a. att treans växel slits ut på flera Panthers, vilket man tror beror på att förarna varvar den växeln för högt när vagnarna kör i lera. Men när det kommer till kraftöverföringen så slits den ut ovanligt snabbt på hög andel stridsvagnar och orsakar mekaniska haverier. Av 30 Panther vagnar så måste man byta transmissionen på 13 av dem. [ 5 ]

      Det var inte ovanligt att Panther stridsvagnar retirerade ur strid genom att backa, för att hålla sitt frontpansar mot fienden. Därför var problemet högst närvarande genom hela tjänstgöringstiden.

      Panthern genomgick under sin produktionstid ett antal förbättringar för att sänka produktionskostnaderna och göra vagnen mer effektiv i strid. Detta ledde till att vagnen kom att produceras i tre varianter eller utföranden ('Ausführung', förkortat 'Ausf.'). Därutöver byggdes flera vagnar om som bärgnings-, eller eldledningsfordon. Ausf. G blev också grund för pvkv:n Jagdpanther.

      Ausf. D. Notera vagnchefens cylindriska kupol med tittgluggar. Underkanten och överkanten av skrovets sidopansar är parallella med varandra. Det övre frontpansaret har en avlång glugg med pansrad lucka för signalistens kulspruta precis bortom den vita skriften.

      Ausf. A. Notera konisk kupol med periskop och kulmontage för signalistens kulspruta. Föraren har fortfarande en tittlucka i frontpansaret (luckan är stängd på föregående bild), och två periskop i skrovets tak. I övrigt lik Ausf. D.

      Ausf. G. Skrovets sidopansar ovanför bandaggregatet sluttar nu nedåt mot vagnens bakdel. Föraren har ej längre någon siktglugg, och ett av hans periskop har avlägsnats. Det kvarvarande periskopet ersattes med en vridbar modell.

      Ausf. F som modell. De båda pansarkulorna på tornets sidor skyddar okular för en avståndsmätare monterad tvärledes ovanför kanonens bakstycke. Ett av prototyptornen finns för närvarande på Bovington Tank Museum i England.

      En bevarad Bergepanther på Musée des Blindés i Saumur, Frankrike. Detta fordon baserat på chassi och skrov av Ausf. G.

      Panther Ausf. D

      Detta var den första produktionsmodellen. Tillverkningen startade i januari 1943 och fram till september samma år så producerades 850 stridsvagnar. [ 2 ] Det första förband som tilldelades Pantherstridsvagnar var Panzer-Brigade 10 som bestod av två självständiga pansarbataljoner med 96 Panther var Panzer-Abteilung 51 och Panzer-Abteilung 52, brigaden underställdes Panzergrenadier-Division Großdeutschland inför slaget vid Kursk. [ 6 ] Resten av produktionen tilldelades sedan två självständiga pansarregementen, Panzer-Regiment 26 och Panzer-Regiment 23 samt 2. SS-Panzer-Division Das Reich och 1. SS-Panzer-Division "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler". [ 2 ] De första 20 stridsvagnarna utgjorde en förserie och hade en svagare 21-liters Maybach HL 210 P30 motor samt endast 60 mm frontpansar, dessa vagnar användes huvudsakligen för träning och tester. [ 6 ] Senare fordon i D-serien fick en 23-liters motor, ny utväxling med en epicyklisk styrning som förbättrade manöverdugligheten samt fick en ny kupol på tornet.

      Panther Ausf. A

      Varför A-serien kom efter D-serien är inte känt. De största förbättringarna från den föregående D-serien var en ny gjuten kupol med sju periskop och ett fäste för en luftvärnskulspruta. Luckan i vänstra tornsidan för ilastning av ammunition togs bort. Det binokulära siktet till kanonen TZF12 byttes gradvis ut mot den monokulära TZF12a under produktionstiden. Ett nytt kulmontage för signalistens kulspruta i fronten ersatte den tidigare gluggen för kulsprutan. Stridsvagnarna hade även sidoplåtar mot pansarvärnsvapen, samt zimmerit mot magnetiska minor. Drivlinan förstärktes för att öka tillförlitligheten. Denna variant tillverkades i 2 000 exemplar mellan augusti 1943 och maj 1944. [ 7 ]

      Panther Ausf. G

      G-modellen dök upp tidigt år 1944 och hade förbättrats i enlighet med de erfarenheter man erhållit på slagfälten. Pansaret var nu mera sluttande och det inre utrymmet utökades. Man förenklade även vagnen för att snabba på tillverkningen. Föraren fick ett periskop som kunde roteras.

      Panther Ausf. F

      Ausf. F var i stort sett bara ett nytt torn som utvecklats för att användas med chassit från Ausf. G. Dock skulle det nya fordonet benämnas Panther Ausf. F om det togs i bruk. Tornet kallades "Schmalturm" och skulle åtgärda vissa designbrister i de tidigare modellernas torn. Bl.a. var specifikationerna:

      • Undvika att få rikoschetter som studsade ner i stridsutrymmet.
      • Bättre skyddsnivå på pansaret.
      • Bättre ventilation av tornet så att krutgaser ventilerades ut snabbare.
      • Minska målytan på tornet.

      Tornet fick mer pansar men gjordes smalare för att inte öka vikten på stridsvagnen. Kanonskölden ersattes med en ny konisk variant. Pansaret på sidorna och även baktill på tornet ökades till 60 mm. Pansaret på taket i tornet ökade från 16 mm till 40 mm. Någon storskalig produktion av de nya tornen kom aldrig igång och det är ytterst tveksamt om någon Ausf. F någonsin hann användas i strid.


      För att erhålla ett tillräckligt starkt fordon för att bogsera skadade Tiger- och Pantherstridsvagnar valde man att bygga om 279 Pantherstridsvagnar till bärgningsfordon (Tigerstridsvagnarna var för värdefulla). Man tog bort tornet från en Panthervagn av modell D och skar ut en öppning i toppen på stridsvagnen, därefter svetsade man dit en halv meter hög metallåda runt främre chassit och förlängde den uppåt med brädor. Dessa kunde fällas ned och användas som arbetsplattformar. Därefter monterade man en vinsch och en kabeltrumma i stridsutrymmet. En mindre stålkran fästes sedan på chassit. Baktill hade den ett nedfällbart markankare vilket användes vid vinschning av utskjutna / fastkörda eller skadade stridsvagnar.


      Efter att man experimenterat med tidigare pansarvärnskanonvagnar, såsom Elefant och Nashorn beslöt man att utveckla en variant av Panthern som bar den berömda 88mm-pjäsen. Kanonens storlek och dess erforderliga rekylutrymme krävde att vagnens framdel byggdes om till en enda stor kasematt som sträckte sig hela vägen från förarplatsen till framkanten på motorrummet (se bildgalleriet ovan). I detta utrymme monterades en 88 mm PaK 43/3 L/71-pansarvärnskanon. Detta kom att bli den bästa tyska pansarvärnskanonvagnen under kriget, men endast 392 stycken byggdes mellan januari 1944 och mars 1945. [ 8 ] Jagdpanthern var dock populär bland sina användare och moralen var hög.

      Beobachtungspanzer Panther

      I slutet av 1944 byggdes reparerade Panther stridsvagnar om till eldledningsvagnar Beobachtungspanzer Panther. Kanonen monterades bort och hålet i tornfronten täcktes för. Mitt på tornfronten monterades en kort kanonattrapp och till höger monterades en kulspruta av typen MG-34 i kulmontage. På höger- och vänsterkanten av tornfronten fanns öppningar för en EM 1,25m R (Pz) stereoskopisk avståndsmätare för noggranna avståndsmätningar. Öppningarna kunde stängas för med pansrade lock för att skydda instrumentet när man inte observerade. Totalt konverterades 41 Beobachtungspanzer Panther. [ 9 ]

      I körbart skick


        (Tyskland) (Belgien) (Belgien)
    3. Nationaal Oorlogs- en Verzetsmuseum i Overloon, Nederländerna
    4. Auto- und Technikmuseum i Sinsheim, Tyskland
    5. Bovington (Storbritannien)
    6. Noter

        Chamberlain, Peter Doyle Hilary L. (1999[1993]) (på engelska). Encyclopedia of German tanks of World War Two (Rev. ed). London: Arms & Armour. sid. 122. Libris6460286. ISBN 1-85409-518-8 (pbk)
  5. ^ [abc] Chamberlain, Peter Doyle Hilary L. (1999[1993]) (på engelska). Encyclopedia of German tanks of World War Two (Rev. ed). London: Arms & Armour. sid. 120. Libris6460286. ISBN 1-85409-518-8 (pbk) Jentz, Thomas (1995). Germany's Panther Tank . sid. 35 Jentz, Thomas L. (1995). Germany's Panther tank : the quest for supremacy : development, modifications, rare variants characteristics, combat accounts. Schiffer Pub. ISBN 0-88740-812-5. OCLC34974448 . . Läst 5 maj 2020 Jentz, Thomas L. (1995). Germany's Panther tank : the quest for supremacy : development, modifications, rare variants characteristics, combat accounts. Schiffer Pub. ISBN 0-88740-812-5. OCLC34974448 . . Läst 5 maj 2020
  6. ^ [ab] ”Panzerkampfwagen V Panther Sd. Kfz. 171”. Achtung Panzer . . Läst 24 november 2011 . Chamberlain, Peter Doyle Hilary L. (1999[1993]) (på engelska). Encyclopedia of German tanks of World War Two (Rev. ed). London: Arms & Armour. sid. 122. Libris6460286. ISBN 1-85409-518-8 (pbk) Chamberlain, Peter Doyle Hilary L. (1999[1993]) (på engelska). Encyclopedia of German tanks of World War Two (Rev. ed). London: Arms & Armour. sid. 128. Libris6460286. ISBN 1-85409-518-8 (pbk) Chamberlain, Peter Doyle Hilary L. (1999[1993]) (på engelska). Encyclopedia of German tanks of World War Two (Rev. ed). London: Arms & Armour. sid. 127. Libris6460286. ISBN 1-85409-518-8 (pbk)
  7. Webbkällor

    Tryckta källor

    Chamberlain, Peter Doyle Hilary L. (1999[1993]). ”Panzerkampfwagen V (Panther)” (på engelska). Encyclopedia of German tanks of World War Two (Rev. ed). London: Arms & Armour. sid. 120-133. Libris 6460286. ISBN 1-85409-518-8 (pbk)

    Panther Ausf G de la Panzer-division "MÜNCHEBERG"

    Le Panther Ausf G de la Panzer-division "MÜNCHEBERG"

    Le Panzerkampfwagen V Panther (Sdkfz 171) est un char de combat utilisé par l'armée Allemande pendant la Seconde guerre Mondiale, de juillet 1943 lors de la bataille de Koursk, au 8 mai 1945 .
    Conçu pour contrer le char T-34 soviétique et remplacer les Panzerkampfwagen III et les Panzerkampfwagen IV, il servit en définitive à leurs côtés, jusqu'à la fin de la guerre, en trois versions principales : « D », « A », « G ».
    Une dernière version « F » était prévue, avant le remplacement définitif du « Panther » par le char « E-50 ». Fut aussi étudié un « Panther 2 » avec canon et train de roulement du « Tiger II », sans que cela n'aille plus loin que la planche à dessin.

    Le dernier modèle de production, le Panther Ausf.G (la dénomination Pz.Kpfw V avait été abandonnée à la demande d'Hitler) fit son apparition en 1944. Ce modèle comportait des modifications importantes. En effet les côtés de la superstructure furent modifiés pour en simplifier la fabrication et les coffres de rangement faisaient désormais partie intégrante de la caisse et non plus des éléments ajoutés. Les côtés de la caisse du Ausf.G étaient caractéristiques par l'absence des ailerons présents aux extrémités arrières de la superstructure des modèles D et A. Le blindage des côtés fut en outre augmenté jusqu'à 50 mm d'épaisseur.

    Le modèle présenté provient de la Panzer-Division "MÜNCHEBERG", le dernier carré d'Hitler , créer le 05 mars 1945 , commandée par le Généralmajor der reserve Werner Mumme rt.

    Plutôt de division , il s'agit plus de Kampfgruppe mélangeant le meilleurs des tankistes du bataillon "Kummersdorf", des grenadier de la "Grossdeutchland", et de la "Leibstandart " , comme le "pire" (adolescents de la jeunesse hit lerienne et vieillard du Volkssturm.
    Ils se ba t tront pourtant tous avec l'énergie du désespoir à K ü strin, Seelow et Berlin.

    Cette division fut donc regroupée à Müncheberg le 11 mars 1945 avec 6836 hommes sans jamais atteindre l'effectif théorique de 11422 hommes d'une division typ 1945.

    Ce régiment blindé sera en fait constitué par l"amalgamede la Panzer-Abteilung "Kummersdorf" et de la I/Panzer-Regiment 29 prélevé à la 12.Panzer-Division.
    C'est alors une "Division qui est tout sauf une division au rabais.

    Le 9 mars 1945 le generalmajor Werner Mummert, ancien commandant de la 103e Brigade blindée, est placé à la tête de cette nouvelle Panzer-Division.
    La division Müncheberg reçoit les équipements dernier cri, plusieurs systèmes de visée infrarouge Sperber pour les Panther Ausf G, ainsi qu'une compagnie de Panzergrenadiers.
    La division possède également plusieurs Jagdtigers superlourds, Tiger II Ausf Bs, et 5 Tiger I Ausf Es les chars allemands plus modernes à être envoyés sur le front.
    Le 12 mars la division comportait 6836 hommes.
    Le 18 mars la division est renforcée par l’apport d'un bataillon d'infanterie provenant de la 1 re division SS Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler.
    Les forces soviétiques s’approchant de Müncheberg, la Panzer-Division Müncheberg est déplacée vers l’est pour servir de réserve mobile au général Theodor Busse commandant de 9 e armée allemande dépendant du groupe d'armées Vistule sous les ordres du général Gotthard Heinrici.
    C’est ainsi que le 22 mars 1945, la Panzer-Division Müncheberg arrive sur le front à Cottbus.

    Cette nouvelle division est formé sous le type "Panzer - division typ 1945" , c'est à dire sous l'ossature d'un seul bataillon de blindé en terme d 'effectif mais de deux bataillon dans la réalité.

    Panther Ausf G numéro 221

    Au cours de cette période de radoub, deux compagnies, une de Panzergrenadier et une autre de Panther Gs Ausf, ont été envoyées à la Panzertruppenschule II 2 à Wünsdorf (de) afin d'être formées à l'utilisation du système de visée infrarouge Sperber équipant son nouveau matériel en particulier les Panther Ausf G. Le 7 avril 1945, la Panzerdivision Müncheberg se fortifie dans les positions creusées sur les hauteurs de Seelow.
    Les compagnies I./29.Panzer-Regiment sous le commandement de l'Oberleutnant Rasim, avec le soutien du Panzer-Grenadier-Regiment Müncheberg 1 du Hauptmann Steuer, équipés du système de visée infrarouge Sperber lancent une attaque de nuit en direction des troupes soviétiques retranchées à Reitwein. Ce fut l'une des premières utilisations de infrarouge dans le combat et l'attaque, bien que limitée, a été un énorme succès.
    Le 16 avril le maréchal Joukov lance un assaut massif sur l'ensemble de la ligne Oder-Neisse visant à capturer Berlin. À partir de cette date et jusqu'à la fin de la guerre, la Panzerdivision Müncheberg combattra constamment. Lors de l'offensive Seelow-Berlin Joukov, fit lancer son attaque contre Seelow dans la nuit, en mettant en place des projecteurs afin d'éclairer et d'aveugler les positions allemandes. Cette attaque fut un fiasco complet pour les Soviétiques. Durant 3 jours de combats les Allemands détruisirent 320 chars, en endommagèrent 420 et mirent hors de combat 19 547 soviétiques. La division Müncheberg, équipée de plusieurs canons automoteurs anti-chars de 8,8 cm et 12,8 cm , a causé de lourdes pertes aux Soviétiques qui progressaient dans ce qui allait rester dans l'Histoire comme la bataille des Hauteurs de Seelow.
    Les Allemands retranchés rejetèrent, durant trois jours, du 16 avril au 19 avril, les milliers de troupes et de chars lancés par Joukov contre leurs positions. Toutefois, le 19 avril, la 9 e division parachutiste allemande, positionnée sur la droite des Müncheberg, a finalement craqué et tout le front s'est effondré.
    Le 20 avril, après avoir combattu en première ligne durant 8 jours, la Müncheberg, et son autre voisine la 11e SS Freiwilligen Panzergrenadier Division Nordland reculèrent, en combat d'arrière garde, jusque dans Berlin.

    Le 25 avril, le général Helmuth Weidling, le commandant la défense de Berlin, ordonne à Werner Mummert de prendre le commandement du LVI e Corps de Panzer, le commandement de la Müncheberg étant remis au colonel Hans-Oscar Wöhlermann.
    Le 26 avril Weidling ordonne à la Müncheberg et à la SS Nordland, de lancer une attaque sur l'aéroport de Tempelhof et Neukölln. La division Müncheberg, qui attaque avec ses dix derniers panzers, progresse contre des Soviétiques totalement surpris. Toutefois l'effet de surprise passée, la féroce défense de l'armée rouge et plusieurs contre-attaques stoppèrent les allemands. Ce même jour vers midi, Wöhlermann est relevé Mummert reprend son poste en tant que commandant de la division.
    Ce qui suit est du journal d'un officier de la Division Müncheberg et décrit les évènements de la soirée du 26 avril 1945.

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