USS Hart (DD-110) under construction, Union Iron Works, 1918

USS Hart (DD-110) under construction, Union Iron Works, 1918


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U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.


USS Hart (DD-110) under construction, Union Iron Works, 1918 - History

(Str: t. 638' 1. 234' b. 27'6" dph. 16'9" s. 10 k. cpl. 110)

The second Albatross—an iron-hulled twin-screw steamer reputedly the first vessel ever built especially for marine research—was laid down at Wilmington, Del., by Pusey and

Jones in March 1882, Iaunched on 19 August 1882, and commissioned on 11 November 1882, Lt. Zera L. Tanner in command. Tanner who had superintended the ship's design and construction, would command Albatross, a Navy-manned vessel assigned to the United States Fish Commission, a civilian government agency, for nearly 12 years.

Following trial operations between Wilmington and Washington, D.C. from 30 December 1882 to 13 February 1883, Albatross returned to her builder's yard for engine alterations. While steaming back to Washington, the ship experimented with her dredging equipment and arrived at the nation's capital on 25 March 1883. She 1eft the Potomac on 24 April and proceeded to Woods Hole Mass., which would serve as her base for several months of operations investigating the "migrations of mackerel, menhaden and other migratory species." During this period, she also made shorter dredging trips out of Woods Hole, to the Gulf Stream and the tilefish grounds.

Over the first months of 1884, the steamer operated out of Norfolk, Va., and, at the Navy's request, conducted hydrographic work in the Caribbean, carrying out "biological investigations" afloat and ashore. From 12 July and 23 October 1884, she operated principally between Woods Hole and the nation's capital but also ranged from the Virginia capes to the Gulf of Maine. As she plied these waters, her embarked scientists observed the movements of surface fish, examined the former tilefish grounds and studied the "influence of the Gulf Stream on bottom fauna. " While underway, she also made dredge hauls and conducted fishing trials. "At (the) service of the Secretary of the Navy" between 26 August and 2 September, Albatross participated in the review of the North Atlantic Squadron.

The ship spent the first half of 1885, making cruises from Washington to Pensacola, Fla., and New Orleans, La., to look into the red-snapper banks and fisheries of the gulf. While visiting New Orleans from 20 February to 1 March 1885, the vessel served as a major attraction in the Fish Commission exhibit at the International Exposition then being held in that city. For the latter part of the year, she cruised from Washington to Woods Hole, investigated the Grand Banks, off Newfoundland, and looked into the fishing banks off the Virginia and Delaware capes.

Early in 1886, Albatross proceeded to the Bahamas on a fishery and hydrographic survey then spent the latter part of the year examining the cod and halibut banks off the Canadian Maritime Provinces and dredging off Woods Hole.

For much of 1887, Albatross lay in port at either Washington or Baltimore, readying herself for a cruise to the Pacific. Only one brief cruise interrupted these preparations. From 5 to 9 April, she steamed to Norfolk from the nation's capital to familiarize officers assigned to the steamer Thetis with the dredging equipment that their ship would carry in her voyage to the frigid waters of the North Pacific and Arctic oceans.

In the autumn, Albatross conducted a trial trip testing her newly installed boilers and then carried out sounding and dredging operations along the inner edge of the Gulf Stream. Then following a month at Woods Hole, she proceeded via Washington to Norfolk, whence she got underway on 21 November 1887 to begin the long voyage to the PaciSc Ocean. Albatross arrived at Punta Arenas, Straits of Magellan, on 23 January 1888 and remained at anchor there until 1 February, when she cleared the port to resume her circumnavigation of South America. During the voyage north, she touched briefly at Wreck Bay, Chatham Island, in the Galapagos group on 4 April. Ultimately, the steamer reached San Francisco on 11 May 1888, having completed a 15,956.7-mile voyage. For much of the remainder of the year she operated between San Francisco and Alaska, exploring the waters to the south of the Alaskan peninsula and, later, in exammmg the area off the coasts of Washington and Oregon.

Departing San Francisco on 3 January 1889, Albatross proceeded via San Diego to the Gulf of California, exploring the waters between Point Concepcion and the Mexican border and subsequently sounding the depths off lower California and examining the fishery resources in the Gulf of California and the oyster beds off Guaymas, Mexico. Returning to San Francisco on 25 April, she later proceeded to Seattle, whence she conducted fishery and hydrographic investigations off the coast of Washington and Oregon between 6 and 29 June. Between 8 and 28 July Albatross operated from Tacoma, Wash., with four members of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs embarked: Senators H. L. Dawes F. B. Stockbridge, C. F. Manderson, and J. K. Jones, as the lawmakers "visited the principal Indian settlements in southeast Alaska as far north as Sitka and Juneau."

Albatross cleared Port Townsend, Wash., on 1 August, bound for the Bering Sea, but—nearly 650 miles out—suffered a breakdown of her port engine on 7 August and returned to port on the 11th for repairs. Upon completion of that work on 22 August, the ship returned to sea and resumed her fishery investigations off the coast of the Pacific Northwest and California. In Portland Oreg., during this period, between 28 September and 9 October Albatross drew between 24,000 and 30,000 visitors during the Northern Pacific Industrial Exposition.

Reaching San Francisco on 25 October 1889, the steamer entered the Mare Island Navy Yard and commenced a general overhaul that continued until 5 March 1890. She resumed her active work soon thereafter, carrying out investigations between Point Arena and Point Concepcion, seining and sending ashore collecting parties.

On 5 May 1890, Albatross sailed from San Francisco to carry out''fishery investigations in Alaskan waters and the Bering Sea . . . defining the fishing grounds and determining the physical and natural history features" of the region. She remained at that task through mid-September, before she resumed her labors off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California.

Continuing to operate out of San Francisco early the following year, 1891, the ship sailed on 30 January for Panama, where she embarked the noted zoologist, Alexander Agassiz, for a special expedition authorized by President Benjamin Harrison to explore the waters off the coast of Mexico, Central America and the region around the Galapagos islands. Agassiz disembarked at Guaymas, Mexico, on 23 April and Albatross returned to San Francisco on 5 May. That summer, she left San Francisco on 16 July 1891, bound for the Pribilof Islands, with Mr. Thomas C. Mendenhall and Mr. C. Hart Merriam—members of the Bering Sea Commission charged with preparing America's case to take before the Tribunal of Arbitration at Paris—embarked. Later between 27 August and 14 September, Albatross carried out hydrographic work in the Strait of Juan de Fuca.

Over the next few months, Albatross operated out of San Francisco. Placed under the direction of the Secretary of the

Navy, she plied the Pacif c between the west coast of the United

States and the Hawaiian Islands, working towards determining "a practicable route for a telegraphic cable" between San Francisco and Honolulu. During the course of this hydrographic work (which took place between 9 October 1891 and 16 January 1892) Albatross also made a few dredge hauls and took some plankton samples.

Next, temporarily assigned to the Revenue Marine Division of the Secretary of the Treasury, Albatross departed San Francisco on 19 March 1892, bound for Unalaska, Alaska, the Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands, to conduct fur seal investigations and gather ". . . information on questions at issue between the United States and Great Britain." Among her special passengers on this cruise were a resident naturalist, a fishery expert, a special agent of the United States Treasury, and two seal hunters one of whom was an "interpreter of Chinook jargon." In July 1892, however, leaky boilers compelled the steamer to transfer the fishery expert and one seal hunter to the revenue cutter Corunn, and the resident naturalist and the other hunter to the revenue cutter Rush, to carry out what remained of Albatross' assignment as she began her return to San Francisco for repairs. En route, despite being hampered by steaming on one hastily repaired boiler she brought in a confiscated sailing schooner to Sitka Alaska, on 11 August and, while there, steamed out to sea and rescued the drifting whaling bark Lydia.

Following yard work at Mare Island which lasted into the spring of 1893, Albatross returned to Aleutian waters and resumed her duties in connection with the Alaskan fur seal and fishery investigations. In addition, she carried out patrols as part of the United States naval force in the Bering Sea. Returnmg to San Francisco at the end of September 1893, the ship departed that port on 2 January 1894, and conducted a biological survey of San Diego Bay before returning to San Francisco on 30 March.

Albatross sailed from her home port on 14 April, bound for the Pacific northwest and, from 19 April to 5 May, assisted in the investigation of seal and salmon fisheries in the Puget Sound region. During this period, on 1 May, Lt. Comdr. F. J. Drake relieved Lt. Comdr. Tanner, who had been in continuous command of the research vessel since she had been first commissioned.

Into the autumn of 1894, the marine research vessel alternately patrolled the Bering Sea and operated in the western Aleutians, as her embarked resident naturalist, fishery expert and scientific assistant studied the fishing grounds of that region and the "pelagic habits of the fur seals and their rookeries on the Pribilof Islands." Then, her mission completed, she returned to San Francisco on 17 October 1894.

Departing San Francisco on 18 May 1895, Albatross sailed again for the Bering Sea, where, over the ensuing months, she helped to enforce "regulations governing vessels employed in fur seal fishery," but operated independently of the Bering Sea fleet. She also kept an eye on the fur seals and fishing grounds, and carried out hydrographic investigations. En route home, Albatross visited New Whatcom, Wash., and was on exhibit at the state fair there, hosting visitors on 18 September 1895 and for days following. She then spent nearly a month investigating the Puget Sound salmon fisheries.

Through the first four months of 1896, Albatross operated locally between San Francisco and San Diego Bay, conducting a physical and natural history survey of the latter, as well as of the Cortez and Tanner banks offshore. From 20 to 26 April, the ship took part in "La Fiesta de Los Angeles." Later that spring, on 17 and 18 May, Albatross participated in the official speed trials of the new Oregon (Battleship No. 3) out of San Francisco. Then, after investigating the oyster grounds of San Francisco Bay and the suitability of that body of water for oyster cultures, Albaross headed back to the northern Pacific.

For the next six months, the ship ranged from San Francisco to the Pribilof Islands, and from the Sea of Okhotsk and the Kuril Islands back to San Francisco, via Hawaii. During this cruise, she investigated the condition of the fur seal herds on the islands of the north Pacific and Bering Sea. In addition to carrying members of the United States Fur Seal Commission (whose membership included Albatross' commanding officer, Lt. Comdr. Jefferson I'. Moser), she also transported two members of an independent British Commission and a photographer to the Pribilofs.

Albatross returned to San Francisco on 11 December 1896 and, after a few weeks of voyage repairs, on 30 December began a provisional examination of the fishing grounds off the coast of Los Angeles County, Monterey, and in the vicinity of the Farallon Islands, to gather data for consideration in weighing the desirability of extending the limits of the offshore fisheries. Upon finishing this work on 25 April 1897, the ship began upkeep at San Francisco.

Dedicated exclusively to fishery work on her next cruise, the marine research vessel stood out of San Francisco on 8 May and operated in the waters of Puget Sound and off Cape Flattery until heading further north on 29 May. Attempting to locate new halibut banks en route, she systematically studied the "streams of southeast Alaska to determine their resources and the abundance, movements, and habits of their fishes," before ultimately returning to San Francisco on 2 November 1897.

Soon after the United States declared war on Spain, Albatross was turned over to the commandant of the navy yard at Mare Island on 21 April 1898 for conversion to an auxiliary cruiser. Her dreding and collecting equipment landed and stored at the yard, the sh-ip underwent conversion at Union Iron Works San Francisco, over the next few months. During this alteration her pilot house was raised to permit construction of two additional staterooms beneath it, she received a new upper bridge and her coal bunkers were enlarged to increase her steaming radius. In addition, the ship received a battery of two 20pounders, two 37-millimeter guns, one 53-millimeter gun and two Gatling guns. On 11 August, the auxiliary cruiser sailed for Acapulco, Mexico, as Spanish resistance on the war's last front was collapsing. On the night of 12-13 August, news was received of the signing of the peace protocol. Albatross returned to the Mare Island Navy Yard on 8 September and landed her guns a week later. She was then returned to the Fish Commission under the terms of a Presidential order dated 25 August 1898.

Following repairs and alterations Albatross sailed from San Francisco on 23 August 1899, bound by a most circuitous route for the Far East. Over the next few months, again with Professor Agassiz embarked, she ranged into the South and Central Pacific, visiting the Marquesas, Paumotu, Society, Cook, Tonga Fiji, Ellice, Gilbert, Marshall, Caroline and Ladrone Island groups. During the course of this cruise over a vast ocean basin which Agassiz named "Moser Deep" in honor of Alhatross' captain, her distinguished passenger made thousands of dredgmgs, and soundings of the sea yielded siliceous sponges from 4,173 fathoms.

After disembarking Agassiz upon arrival at Yokohama, Japan, on 4 March 1900, Albatross operated out of that port into June. During this period, from 4 to 8 May, she conducted several short dredging trips for the benefit of a party of students from the Imperial University in Tokyo. Ultimately departing Yokohama on 2 June, the ship visited Hakodate, Japan and Kamchatka north of the Aleutian Islands, and collected biological specimens in the North Pacific. That summer, she ranged into the Bering Sea, and ultimately returned to San Francisco on 30 October 1900 after a cruise of 14 months.

The following year, 1901, Albatmss continued her work in the salmon fisheries of southeast Alaskan waters, departing San Francisco for that region on 23 April. During her homeward voyage in September and October, she investigated the waters of ff the Pacific Northwest and California to determine their suitability for the introduction of eastern lobsters and crab, and to study the movements of salmon at sea.

A little over a month later, the steamer sailed for the Farallons on 5 December and, the following morning, planted a shipment of eastern lobster and tautog, received by rail from the east coast, in the waters off those islands. After returning to San Francisco the same day, she operated from that port from 20 December 1897 to 6 April 1898, as she served as a base for a survey of the San Diego County fisheries. On 27 March 1898, her crewmen rescued a man whose rowboat had overturned some 400 yards astern of where the ship lay at anchor.

On 11 March 1902, the steamer sailed for Hawaii, and over the ensuing months, investigated the fish and other aquatic resources of the Hawaiian Islands, ultimately returning to San Francisco on 1 September. The following spring' the ship embarked members of the special commission appointed by Presi- Theodore Roosevelt to investigate the conditions and needs of the Alaskan salmon fisheries, with an eye towards conserving this important resource, and transported them to the waters of the Pacific northwest and of Alaska. During the course of the cruise, Albatross enabled the members of the commission to

visit "numerous salmon streams, canneries, and salteries" in Alaska. She returned to her home port on 24 September 1903.

Early in 1904, Albatross operated locally between San Francisco and San Diego, working jointly with Stanford University and the University of California, in a study of the marine biology and fishery resources in the waters of Monterey Bay and south of Point Conception. The ship did not conduct another expedition until the autumn of 1904, when she sailed from San Francisco on 6 October for Panama.

With Professor Agassiz again embarked, Albatross cruised the tropical waters of the eastern Pacific, visiting the Galapagos Islands, Callao, Peru the Easter and Gambier Islands before she disembarked the distinguished zoologist on 24 February 1905 at Acapulco. Albatross then returned to San Francisco, arriving on 5 April 1905. During this voyage, Agassiz had used Albatross as the base for his study of the Humboldt, or Peruvian, current the most extensive explorations made in those waters up to that time.

Later that spring, the research vessel departed San Francisco on 18 May, bound for Alaskan waters, and, over the next several months installed a salmon hatchery at Yes Bay and, later, carried out several plankton tows in the waters between Puget Sound and Wrangell Island. She returned to San Francisco on 16 November 1905.

As the ship was preparing for her next cruise, a violent earthquake shook San Francisco on 18 April 1906, and a disastrous fire ensued. Albatross assisted greatly in the relief efforts. Underway on 3 May, the ship sailed for the familiar climes of the Aleutians, and, during the cruise, ranged as far as the Commander Islands (Komandorskis) and the Sea of Okhotsk, and even visited the coasts of Japan and Korea. She investigated the salmon fisheries, the distribution of the various types of fish which inhabited the waters she traversed, and conducted scientific explorations of the northern Pacific ocean. Tragically, on the return leg of the voyage, her captain, Lt. Comdr. LeRoy M. Garrett, was washed overboard in rough seas on 21 November 1906. The ship, under the command of Lt. (later Admiral) Arthur J. Hepburn ultimately reached San Francisco on 10 December 1906.

Following upkeep and voyage repairs, the steamer departed San Francisco on 16 October 1907, beginning what would be her longest cruise. Steaming by way of Hawaii, Midway, and Guam, the ship proceeded to the Philippine Islands and, over the next two and a half years, surveyed the fisheries and aquatic resources of the Philippines and neighboring regions before returning home on 4 May l9l0.

That summer, Albatross returned to the waters off Alaska and the Pribilof Islands, on an inspection tour of various "govern- activities in which the Department of Commerce and Labor" harbored an interest. After returning to San Francisco on 20 September 1910, she cruised to the Gulf of California and back between 23 February and 28 April 1911 to carry out a scientific expedition to Lower California and adjacent islands in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History. The research vessel again departed San Francisco on 17 May 1911 and proceeded to Alaskan waters, to examine the existing halibut and cod fishing grounds and to search for new ones. She operated off the territory's southeast coast and in the Gulf of Alaska before returning home on 2 September 1911.

Found unseaworthy upon her return to San Francisco Albatross'sphere of operations was limited to the San Francisco Bay and during 1912, 1913 and 1914, the ship carried out a biological survey of that body of water. Late in this period, during the fiscal year 1913, Albatross underwent a major refit at Mare Island that altered her rigging from brigantine to schooner and enlarged her deckhouse as the pilot house was extended to provide two offfices and a new stateroom for the executive officer. In addition, a radio "shack" was built forward of the mainmast.

Albatross subsequently departed San Francisco on 12 April 1914 and set course for the coasts of Washington and Oregon but interrupted her survey of the fishing grounds off the coasts of Washington and Oregon, to take the Deputy Commissioner of Fisheries to the Pribilofs, on an inspection trip of the fisheries of central and western Alaska that lasted from 12June to 22 August. Returning to San Francisco on 15 September 1914, she resumed her work off the Oregon and Washmgton coasts the following summer, clearing her home port on 6 July 1915. Over the ensuing months, she resurveyed the grounds she had studied during her cruises in 1888 and 1889. From the spring of 1916 into the autumn of that year, Al batross operated in the waters off southern and Lower California, to learn of the "distribution and migration of tuna."

Insufficient funds to operate the vessel, however, dictated that she be laid up, and she remained inactive from October 1916 to April 1917. The American entry into World War I at the end of that period resulted in the ship being transferred to the Navy for war service on 2 May 1917, withm a month of the United States' declaration of war against the Central Powers.

Taken over by the Commandant of the 12th Naval District on 19 November 1917, Albatross was placed under the command of Lt. Comdr. John J. Hannigan. Following repairs and alterations at Mare Island, Albatross—her armament consisting of four 6-pounders and a Colt automatic gun—departed San Francisco on 14 January 1918 and reached Kev West, Fla., on 14 February. Assigned to the American Patrol Detachment, the gunboat protected tankers transporting important oil and petroleum cargoes in the Gulf of Mexico and in the Caribbean. While working with the American Patrol Department, she took part in the search for the Navy collier Cyclops which, after departing Barbados on 4 March 1918, had disappeared without trace in the spring of 1918.

On 21 November 1918, 10 days after the armistice stilled the guns of World War I, the Chief of Naval Operations directed that Albatross, upon the completion of repairs at New Orleans La., be released from duty with the American Patrol Detachment. Reaching Norfolk on 30 May 1919, the ship was turned over to the Bureau of Fisheries on 23 June 1919.

The following autumn, Albatross resumed her scientific work cruising from Norfolk to the Gulf of Mexico and Havana Cuba, conducting hydrographic investigations of the Gulf Stream between 30 October and 15 December 1919. The following year Albatross departed Baltimore on 16 February 1920 and proceeded to the waters off New England. She then operated out of Boston into the spring, carrying out hydrographic work in the Gulf of Maine. She returned to Baltimore on 30 May

Ultimately decommissioned at Woods Hole on the morning of 29 October 1921, Albatross, minus her equipment, instruments and library, was sold on 16 June 1924 to Thomas Butler and Co. of Boston, Mass., who then refitted her "as closely possible along her old lines" as a schoolship. Four years later fitted out as a training ship for "nautical students or cadets l, the venerable vessel departed Boston on 12 July 1927 under the auspices of the American Nautical School, Inc., with 119 pupils on board, bound for European waters. The students, however, departed the ship at a succession of ports on the ships final voyage—Cork, Ireland Le Havre, France, and Amsterdam, Holland—with the result that only 21 remained on board when she arrived at Hamburg Germany. The ship's crew demanded that she be auctioned off to satisfy their demand for wages. On 18 October of the same year the ship was reportedly tied up at Hamburg, "under attachment for indebtedness." No notice of public auction has been found, and the documentary trail, such as it is, ends in 1928. Her exact fate remains unknown.


Union Profiles

The Center for Union Facts (CUF) has compiled the single most comprehensive database of information about labor unions in the United States. The database contains more than 100 million facts, ranging from basic union finances and leader salaries, to political operations, to strikes and unfair labor practices, and much more. The data comes from various local, state, and federal government agencies that track labor union operations.

The Center for Union Facts database is organized into two major categories: national and local unions, both of which are tracked by the Office of Labor-Management Standards in the United States Department of Labor. The national profiles include the operations of the national headquarters, as well as information regarding all locals organized under a national body. Local union profiles only include information regarding the specific local union.

Other independent labor organizations are also covered by our database. They can be found using the search function found at the bottom of this page.


Delridge is a district in West Seattle, Washington that stretches along Delridge Way, an arterial that follows the eastern slope of the valley of Longfellow Creek, from near its source just within the southern city limits north to the West Seattle Bridge over the Duwamish River.

The demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States encompass the gender, ethnicity, and religious, geographic, and economic backgrounds of the 113 people who have been appointed and confirmed as justices to the Supreme Court.


USS Hart (DD-110)

USS Hart (DD-110) amerykański niszczyciel typu Wickes będący w służbie United States Navy w okresie po I wojnie światowej. Patronami okrętu byli Ezekiel Hart i John E. Hart.

Okręt zwodowano 4 lipca 1918 w stoczni Union Iron Works w San Francisco. Matką chrzestną była żona Daniela C. Nuttinga. Jednostka weszła do służby 26 maja 1919, pierwszym dowódcą został Comdr. Harold Jones.

"Hart" dołączył do sił niszczycieli i operował w pobliżu kalifornijskiego wybrzeża do 17 lipca 1920. Wtedy został przeklasyfikowany na niszczyciel-stawiacz min, DM-8, i przeszedł do Mare Island Naval Shipyard by zainstalować odpowiednie wyposażenie. Po przebudowie okręt został przydzielony do Oddziału Minowego Floty Azjatyckiej (ang. Mine Detachment, Asiatic Fleet) i popłynął na Filipiny w listopadzie 1920. Następnie operował na wodach filipińskich i chińskich w ramach operacji pokojowych.

Otrzymawszy rozkaz przejścia do San Diego na dezaktywację "Hart" wypłynął z Manili 12 grudnia 1930 i dotarł do San Diego 24 stycznia 1931. Został wycofany ze służby 1 czerwca 1931. Jego nazwę skreślono z listy okrętów floty 11 listopada. Okręt został sprzedany na złom 25 lutego 1932 zgodnie z ustaleniami londyńskiego traktatu morskiego.


New Website Features Franklin County Mill Town

There is a new website about the Reynolds Brothers Mill and Logging operation in the community of Reynoldston in the Township of Brandon (Franklin County) which was in operation from 1870 – 1940.

“We have created this website to document the history of this small community using oral history tapes and transcripts we created in 1969/70 as well as with historical photographs and a range of related historical documentation,” according to local historian and website volunteer Bill Langlois.

Reynoldston is one of the many logging centered communities in the Adirondacks that prospered during the cutting of local forests but disappeared when those same forests were clear cut.

The site already features oral history interviews, photographs and documents and is expected to expand to include material on Skerry in the Township of Brandon and the Bowen Mill as well as a wide range of other tapes and transcripts on the early history of Franklin County.


Maryland History Timeline

Around 10,000 BCE, the first inhabitants arrive in the geographic area now known as Maryland. Coming upon 1000 BCE, Maryland has more than 8,000 Native Americans from about 40 tribes. And at 1200 CE many permanent Native American villages are established. One of the original 13 colonies, Maryland lies at the center of the Eastern Seaboard, amid the great commercial and population complex that stretches from Maine to Virginia.

17th Century Maryland History Timeline

1608 - Capt. John Smith explored Chesapeake Bay.

1620 - Earliest appearance in Maryland of European objects in archeological context.

1629 - George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore, sails from Newfoundland to Virginia.

1631 - Kent Island trading post and farming settlement established by William Claiborne, member of Virginia council.

1632, June 20 - Maryland Charter granted to Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, by Charles I, King of Great Britain and Ireland.

1633, Nov. 22 - English settlers on Ark and Dove set sail from Cowes, England, for Maryland.

1634, March 25 - Landing of settlers at St. Clement's (now Blakistone) Island (Maryland Day). Calvert party celebrates Feast of Annunciation (March 25) later purchases Indian land, and builds "Fort at St. Mary's City."

1634-1644 - Leonard Calvert, governor.

1634/5, Feb. 26 - First General Assembly (law-making assembly of freemen) met at St. Mary's City.

  • Proprietary vessels clash with those of William Claiborne.
  • A Relation of Maryland published by Jerome Hawley and John Lewger (London).

1636 - Leonard Calvert House (later, Country's House), East St. Mary's, serves as state house and governor's residence.

1637 - St. Mary's County first cited in provincial records.

1638 - Assembly claims protectons of English law Assembly and courts meet at John Lewger's St. John's.

1639 - First elections in province for delegates to Assembly ordered by Governor Calvert on Kent Island, and in hundreds of Mattapanient, St. Michael's, St. Mary's, and St. George's.

1642 - Kent County first cited in records of commissioner appointments.

1643-1644 - Giles Brent, acting provincial governor.

1645 - Ingle's Rebellion: Richard Ingle leads rebellion against proprietary government.

1646-1647 - Leonard Calvert, governor.

1647/8, Jan. 21 - Margaret Brent denied right to vote in General Assembly.

1647-1649 - Thomas Greene, governor.

  • Governor Stone invites Virginia Puritans to settle in Maryland.
  • April 21 - Religious toleration law (An Act concerning Religion) enacted.

1649-1652 - William Stone, governor.

  • The shipwrecked landing of Colonel Norwood and band near site of present-day Ocean City and their month-long stay with hospitable "Berlin" Indians who feed them and nurse them back to health.
  • April - Anne Arundel County created (Chapter 8, Acts of 1650).
  • April 6 - General Assembly divided into an upper and lower house.

1652, March 29 - Parliamentary commissioners displace proprietary regime.

1654 - Patuxent County (later Calvert County) formed by order in council.

1655, March 25 - Puritans from Virginia defeated Gov. William Stone's forces at Battle of the Severn.

1656 - John Hammond's Leah and Rachel, published (London).

  • Lord Baltimore reestablishes proprietary authority.
  • Nov. 30 - Lord Baltimore's claim to Maryland reaffirmed.

1657-1660 - Josias Fendall, governor

  • Lower House votes to compose itself of four delegates per county, elected by freemen.
  • Charles County created by order in council.

1659/60, Jan. 12 - Baltimore County known to have been established by this date, when a writ was issued to county sheriff.

1660 - Bohemia Manor established by Augustine Herrman.

1660-1661 - Philip Calvert, governor.

1661-1676 - Charles Calvert, governor.

1661/62, Feb. 18 - Talbot County known to have been established by this date, when a writ was issued to county sheriff.

1663 - Augustine Herrman, first naturalized citizen of Maryland.

  • Slavery sanctioned by law slaves to serve for life.
  • Construction on Secretary's Office or Council Chamber (later van Swearingen Ordinary), St. Mary's probably begun by this date.
  • Somerset County established by order in council.
  • Assembly agrees to 1-year "stint" on tobacco growing, but Lord Baltimore vetoes bill.
  • A Character of the Province of Maryland, by George Alsop, published (London)

1667 - St. Mary's City incorporated.

1668/69 Feb 16 - Dorchester County known to have been established by this date, when a writ was issued to county sheriff.

  • Voting restricted by Governor to planters with 50-acre freehold or property worth 40 pounds officeholding restricted to owners of 1,000 acres.
  • Authoritative map of Maryland (engraved, London, 1673) completed by Augustine Herrman.
  • George Fox, founder of Religious Society of Friends, preaches in Anne Arundel County. Friends form Maryland Yearly Meeting.
  • Cecil County erected from Baltimore and Kent counties by proclamation of Governor.
  • Brick state house completed at St. Mary's City.
  • In Lower House, Proprietor limits delegates to two per county.

1676-1679 - Thomas Notley, governor.

  • Philip Calvert begins construction of St. Peter's, largest brick structure in province.
  • Governor grants county courts jurisdiction over civil suits.

1679-1684 - Charles Calvert, 3rd Lord Baltimore, governor.

1681 - Josias Fendall found guilty of conspiracy by Provincial Court, which fines and banishes him.

1682 - Quakers begin building Third Haven Meeting House (completed 1684), Talbot County.

  • Assembly passes Act for Advancement of Trade (town act).
  • Labadist community settles at Bohemia Manor.
  • May 15 - Proprietor replaces headright system of land grants with "caution money" or outright purchase.
  • Cambridge on Choptank River laid out by commissioners.
  • Presbyterians under Francis Makemie build church at Snow Hill, first in colonies.

1684-1689 - Council of deputy governors rules Maryland in the name of child Benedict Leonard Calvert.

1685, Aug. 31 - Printing press of William Nuthead used at St. Mary's City by this date.

1689, July-1690, May - Maryland Revolution of 1689. Protestant Associators overthrow proprietary officers.

1690, May-1692, April - Interim government of Protestant Associators.

  • April-1715 - Crown rule William and Mary declare Maryland a royal colony and appoint Sir Lionel Copley governor. Maryland governed as a royal colony rather than as a proprietary province.
  • Church of England made the established church. Royal assent to establishment act given in 1702.

1693, Sept - Sir Thomas Lawrence, governor.

1693/94 - Sir Edmund Andros, governor.

1693/94 - Nicholas Greenberry, governor.

1694/5, Feb - Capital moved from St. Mary's City to Anne Arundel Town. Governor Nicholson lays out plan for capital city.

1694, Dec - Anne Arundel Town renamed Annapolis.

1694-1699 - Sir Francis Nicholson, governor.

1695 - Prince George's County erected from Charles and Calvert counties (Chapter 13, Acts of 1695, May session)

  • Construction begins on new state house and probably on St. Anne's Church, Annapolis.
  • King William's School (later St. John's College) founded at Annapolis by Governor Nicholson and others.
  • Monopoly of slave trade by Royal African Company abolished by Parliament slave imports markedly increase.
  • Kent County courthouse moves from New Yarmouth to New Town (later Chestertown).

1699-1704 - Nathaniel Blackiston (or his appointee), acting governor.

18th Century Maryland History Timeline

  • Construction completed on new state house and St. Anne's Church, Annapolis.
  • Oct - State House burned.

1704-1709 - John Seymour, governor.

  • Queen Anne's County formed.
  • Justus Engelhardt Kuhn, portrait painter, arrived in Maryland.

1708 - The Sot-Weed Factor: Or, A Voyage to Maryland, by Ebenezer Cook, published (London).

1709-1714 - Edward Lloyd (president of council), acting governor.

1710 - Talbot Court House (later East Town or Easton).

1714-1720 - John Hart, governor.

  • Principio Iron Works, Cecil County, financed by English capital.
  • Feb - Crown restored proprietary rights to Benedict Leonard Calvert, 4th Lord Baltimore.
  • April - Charles Calvert succeeded as 5th Lord Baltimore.

1718 - Catholics disenfranchised by Assembly.

1720-1727 - Charles Calvert, governor.

1723 - School and board of visitors in each county mandated by Assembly.

1727, Sept - Maryland Gazette, first newspaper in the Chesapeake, published by William Parks at Annapolis (until 1734).

1727-1731 - Benedict Leonard Calvert, governor.

1729 - Baltimore Town established by charter.

1730 - Sotweed Redivivus, by Ebenezer Cook, published (Annapolis).

1731 - Baltimore Company began ironmaking on Patapsco River.

1731-1732 - Samuel Ogle, governor.

  • Salisbury Town laid out by commissioners.
  • Establishment of boundary line with three lower counties of Pennsylvania, which later became Delaware.

1732-1733 - Charles Calvert, governor.

1733-1742 - Samuel Ogle, governor.

1741 - Oldtown on upper Potomac founded by Thomas Cresap.

  • First Baptist church in Maryland established at Chestnut Ridge, Baltimore County.
  • Worcester County was created and partitioned from Somerset County.

1742-1747 - Thomas Bladen, governor.

1743 - First Lutheran church in Maryland built under David Candler's leadership, Monocacy River.

1744, June 30 - Native-American chiefs of the Six Nations relinquished by treaty all claims to land in colony. Assembly purchased last Indian land claims in Maryland.

  • Tuesday Club formed in Annapolis. Maryland Jockey Club organized first races. Jonas Green revived Maryland Gazette.
  • Daniel Dulany the Elder laid out Frederick Town and invited German settlement.
  • Assembly combined Jones Town and Baltimore Town.
  • Tobacco inspection law enabled Maryland to control quality of exports established multiple inspection points to ensure export of only quality leaf, and set clerical and proprietary officers' fees.
  • May - Reformed Lutheran congregation organized by Michael Schlatter in Frederick.

1747-1752 - Samuel Ogle, governor.

1748 - Frederick County erected from Baltimore and Prince George's counties.

1750 - Ohio Company established trading post at Will's Creek on Potomac River. About same time, John Stevenson shipped cargo of flour to Ireland, first in an export trade that spurred development of Baltimore.

1752 - John Moale sketched Baltimore Town.

1752-1753 - Benjamin Tasker (president of council), acting governor.

1753-1769 - Horatio Sharpe, governor.

1754 - Fort Cumberland constructed by militiamen.

  • Gen. Edward Braddock led expedition through Maryland to the west. French and Indians defeated Braddock's forces near Fort Duquesne. Indians attacked western settlers.
  • French-speaking Catholics arrived in Baltimore from Nova Scotia.

1756 - Assembly supplied funds for Fort Frederick, near North Mountain.

1762 - Elizabeth Town (later Hagerstown) laid out by Jonathan Hager.

1763 - First volunteer fire company, later Mechanical Company, formed in Baltimore.

1763-1767 - Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon surveyed boundary line with Pennsylvania.

  • Daniel Dulany, Jr., denounced Stamp Act in Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies (Annapolis).
  • Nov. 23 - Stamp Act resistance at Frederick.

1766 - Sons of Liberty organized in Baltimore County.

1767 - Annapolis merchants sent Charles Willson Peale to London to study painting with Benjamin West.

1768 - Baltimore County seat moved from Joppa to Baltimore Town.

  • Maryland merchants adopted policy of nonimportation of British goods.
  • First smallpox hospital in colonies established by Henry Stevenson, Baltimore.

1769-1776 - Robert Eden, governor.

1771 - First brick theater in America opened in Annapolis.

  • Ellicott brothers erected largest flour mill in Maryland on Patapsco River.
  • First Methodist house of worship in colonies, the John Evans House, built under leadership of Robert Strawbridge in Frederick (later Carroll) County.
  • March 28 - Cornerstone laid for new State House in Annapolis.
  • Assembly united Fells Point and Baltimore Town.
  • Maryland Gazette carried "Antilon" and "First Citizen" debate on officers' fees. William Goddard began printing Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser.
  • Caroline County erected from Dorchester and Queen Anne's counties.
  • Harford County formed from Baltimore County.
  • Catoctin Iron Furnace, Frederick County.
  • April 19 - Last colonial General Assembly prorogued.
  • June 22 - First Provincial Convention (an extralegal body) met at Annapolis, and sent delegates to First Continental Congress.
  • Aug - Baltimoreans shipped cargo of corn, rye, and bread to people of Boston.
  • Oct. 19 - Mob burned Peggy Stewart in Annapolis harbor.

Dec - Mordecai Gist formed Baltimore Independent Cadets.

  • March 22 - "Bush Declaration" signed, Bush River, Harford County, patriots call for independence.
  • July 18 - Rifle companies under Michael Cresap and Thomas Price depart Frederick Town to join Washington's army at Boston.
  • July 26 - Association of Freemen formed by Maryland Convention.
  • Aug. 29 - Council of Safety organized.
  • Dec - Association of Freemen began recruiting troops.
  • Colonel William Smallwood organized First Battalion of Maryland (forerunner of Maryland Line), Captain James Nicholson commanded Maryland sloop Defence.
  • Montgomery County created from Frederick County.
  • Washington County created from Frederick County.
  • March - Whig Club formed in Baltimore.
  • June 26 - Departure of Robert Eden, Maryland's last colonial governor.
  • July 4 - Declaration of Independence adopted in Philadelphia. Engrossed copy signed by Marylanders William Paca, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Thomas Stone, and Samuel Chase.
  • July 6 - Maryland Convention declared independence from Great Britain.
  • Aug. 14-Nov. 11 - Constitutional Convention of 1776 (meeting of Ninth Provincial Convention).
  • Aug. 27 - Maryland soldiers fought at Battle of Long Island (under Mordecai Gist fought crucial delaying action at Gowanus Creek) continued to engage the British at later battles, including White Plains, and Harlem Heights.
  • Nov. 3 - Declaration of Rights (Maryland's Bill of Rights) adopted by Ninth Provincial Convention. Church of England disestablished.
  • Nov. 8 - First State Constitution adopted by Ninth Provincial Convention.
  • Feb. 5 - First General Assembly elected under State Constitution of 1776 met at Annapolis.
  • March 21 - Inauguration of Thomas Johnson, first governor elected by General Assembly. Council of Safety disbanded.
  • Sept. 11 - Maryland soldiers fought at Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania.

1777-1779 - Thomas Johnson, governor.

1778 - Count Casimir Pulaski raised independent troops, Baltimore.

1779 - Maryland Anglicans referred to themselves as Protestant Episcopal Church.

1779-1782 - Thomas Sim Lee, governor.

  • Baltimore became port of entry.
  • Aug. 16 - In South Carolina, Maryland soldiers fought at Battle of Camden..
  • Jan. 17 - Maryland soldiers fought and, under John Eager Howard, played decisive role at Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina.
  • Feb. 2 - Property of Loyalists and British subjects confiscated.
  • March 1 - Maryland ratified, and thereby made effective, the Articles of Confederation.
  • March 15 - In North Carolina, Maryland soldiers fought at Battle of Guilford Courthouse.
  • Sept. 8 - Maryland soldiers fought at Battle of Eutaw Springs in South Carolina.
  • Nov. 5 - John Hanson elected President of the United States in Congress Assembled.

1782 - Washington College (formerly Kent Academy) established at Chestertown.

1782-1785 - William Paca, governor.

  • Freemasons, meeting at Talbot Court House, formed Maryland Grand Lodge.
  • Nov. 26-1784, June 3 - Annapolis served as capital to newly forming American nation when Continental Congress met at Annapolis.
  • Dec. 23 - George Washington resigned commission as commander in chief of Continental Army at State House in Annapolis.
  • Potomac Company chartered by Maryland and Virginia.
  • John Frederick Amelung and party established New Bremen glassworks, Frederick County.
  • Jan. 14 - Treaty of Paris, ending Revolutionary War, ratified by Congress at Annapolis.
  • June - Edward Warren, Baltimore, made first balloon ascension in United States aboard balloon designed by Peter Carnes, Bladensburg.
  • Dec - Methodist Christmas Conference, Baltimore, established Methodist Episcopal Church in America.
  • Dec. 30 - St. John's College established at Annapolis. General Assembly designated it, with Washington College, as University of Maryland.
  • German Evangelical Reformed congregation under Philip William Otterbein built United Brethren Church, Baltimore.
  • March 28 - Mt. Vernon Compact, an agreement on navigation and fishing in the tidewaters of the Potomac River and the Chesapeake Bay, negotiated and signed by Maryland Commissioners Thomas Stone, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, and Samuel Chase, and Virginia Commissioners.
  • Aug - China trade began with John O'Donnell's arrival at Baltimore with cargo from Canton, China.

1785-1788 - William Smallwood, governor.

  • Matthias Bartgis began newspaper publishing in Frederick.
  • March 12 - Mt. Vernon Compact ratified by Maryland.
  • Sept. 11-14 - Annapolis Convention of delegates from several states met at Mann's Tavern, Annapolis, to discuss revisions to Articles of Confederation. Maryland sent no representatives.
  • Toll roads connecting Baltimore with Frederick, Westminster, Hanover, and York authorized by General Assembly.
  • Friends' Yearly Meeting, Baltimore, condemned slavery.
  • Sept. 17 - US Constitution signed by Marylanders Daniel Carroll, James McHenry, and Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, at Philadelphia.
  • Nov. 29 - Luther Martin's report, The Genuine Information, criticized proposed US Constitution, including its omission of a bill of rights.
  • Dec - Cokesbury College, Abingdon, opened by Methodists.
  • Dec - Steamboat launched by James Rumsey on Potomac River near Shepherdstown, Virginia.
  • April 28 - Maryland Convention ratified US Constitution, making Maryland the seventh state to do so. Convention adjourned without recommending amendments.
  • May 1 - Parade and festival (following ratification of federal constitution) gave name to Federal Hill, Baltimore.

1788-1791 - John Eager Howard, governor.

  • Allegany County created from Washington County.
  • Georgetown College chartered.
  • Maryland Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and the Relief of Poor Negroes and Others Unlawfully Held in Bondage formed at Baltimore.
  • General meeting of Roman Catholic clergy recommended John Carroll to be pastor of American church.
  • Dec. 19 - Maryland ratified federal Bill of Rights, first ten amendments to US Constitution.
  • Easton incorporated. Easton Maryland Herald published by James Cowan.
  • Stewart Herbert began printing Elizabeth Town Washington Spy, first newspaper west of Blue Ridge Mountains.
  • Aug - By papal direction, Bishop Charles Walmsley consecrated John Carroll as bishop of Baltimore, at Ludworth Castle, England.
  • Benjamin Banneker published almanac.
  • Dec. 19 - Maryland ceded land for federal District of Columbia.

1791-1792 - George Plater, governor.

  • Courthouse opened at Queen Anne's County seat, Centreville.
  • African Americans formed Sharp Street Methodist Church, Baltimore.

1792-1794 - Thomas Sim Lee (Federalist), governor.

1793 - Refugees from Haitian slave uprising arrived in Baltimore.

  • First of many yellow fever epidemics struck Baltimore.
  • Baltimore Equitable Society, first fire insurance company in Maryland, formed.

1794-1797 - John H. Stone (Federalist), governor.

1795 - Bank of Baltimore established. Federal government sited post office at Cumberland.

  • Maryland law forbade import of slaves for sale, permitted voluntary slave emancipation.
  • Baltimore City incorporated.

1797, Sept - David Stodder's shipyard, Harris Creek, launched US Frigate Constellation.

1797-1798 - John Henry (Federalist), governor.

1798-1801 - Benjamin Ogle (Federalist), governor.

1799 - Construction began on Fort McHenry, Baltimore. Alexander Martin established Baltimore American and Daily Advertiser.

19th Century Maryland History Timeline

1801-1803 - John Francis Mercer (Democratic-Republican), governor.

  • Property qualifications for voting removed by constitutional amendment in local and State elections (granting suffrage to adult white males).
  • Daniel Coker ministered to black Methodists, Baltimore.

1803 - Viva voce voting at elections changed to voting by ballot.

1803-1806 - Robert Bowie (Democratic-Republican), governor.

  • Baltimore Water Company formed (chartered 1792).
  • Gunpowder Copper Works, a mining operation, established by Levi Hollingsworth.
  • Construction started for Basilica of the Assumption, America's first Roman Catholic cathedral. Designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe, main section completed 1818.
  • Maximilien Godefroy designed first Gothic Revival structure in United States, St. Mary's Seminary Chapel, Baltimore (completed 1808).

1806-1809 - Robert Wright (Democratic-Republican), governor.

1807, Dec. 18 - University of Maryland chartered at Baltimore as the College of Medicine of Maryland.

  • Elizabeth Seton opened female academy, Baltimore.
  • John Dubois established Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg.
  • Washington Cotton Manufacturing Company, Mount Washington, first in State, incorporated.
  • Elizabeth Seton adopted modified rule of Sisters of Charity, established order in Emmitsburg.
  • St. Joseph's College, Emmitsburg, founded.

1809-1811 - Edward Lloyd V (Democratic-Republican), governor.

  • Adult white male suffrage extended by constitutional amendment to federal elections property qualification ended in voting for electors for president, vice-president, and congressmen.
  • Property qualifications for State officeholding abolished by constitutional amendment.
  • Free blacks disenfranchised.
  • Hezekiah Niles began publishing Niles' Register in Baltimore.
  • Work started on National Road.
  • Alexander Brown & Sons opened as investment banking firm, Baltimore.

1811-1812 - Robert Bowie (Democratic-Republican), governor.

  • College of Medicine chartered as University of Maryland, Baltimore.
  • Thomas Kemp, Fells Point, launched Baltimore Clipper Chasseur, later famous under command of Thomas Boyle.
  • July - Mob attacked Alexander Contee Hanson, editor of Baltimore Federal Republican, and party.

1812-1816 - Levin Winder (Federalist), governor.

  • Chesapeake, first steamboat, appeared on Chesapeake Bay.
  • British conducted raids on Chesapeake targets, including Havre de Grace.
  • Hagerstown incorporated (Chapter 121, Acts of 1813, Dec. session).
  • Aug - Rembrandt Peale opened Baltimore Museum and Gallery of Fine Arts, designed by Robert Cary Long, Sr.
  • Aug. 24 - Battle of Bladensburg, sailors and marines under Joshua Barney fought rear-guard action.
  • Sept. 12 - British repulsed by local militia at Battle of North Point.
  • Sept. 13 - Bombardment of Fort McHenry inspired Francis Scott Key to write "Star-Spangled Banner."
  • Charles Reeder established steam-engine manufactory and foundry, Federal Hill.
  • Baltimoreans laid cornerstones for Robert Mills's Washington Monument (July completed 1829) and Godefroy's Battle Monument (Sept. completed 1825).
  • Rembrandt Peale demonstrated gas lighting at his museum.
  • Delphian Club organized, Baltimore.
  • Daniel Coker and other black church leaders formed independent African Methodist Episcopal Church.

1816-1819 - Charles Ridgely (Federalist), governor.

  • Maximilien Godefroy, architect, began Unitarian Temple, Baltimore.
  • Maryland auxiliary of American Colonization Society formed, Baltimore.
  • Feb - Gas Light Company incorporated to provide streetlights in Baltimore, first such firm in country.
  • National Road completed from Cumberland to Wheeling, now West Virginia.
  • Savings Bank of Baltimore, first of its kind in State.
  • Maryland Agricultural Society organized, Baltimore.
  • Charles Goldsborough (Federalist), governor.
  • John Stuart Skinner published American Farmer, Baltimore.
  • Independent Order of Odd Fellows organized in Baltimore.
  • March 6 - In M'Culloch v. Maryland, US Chief Justice John Marshall interpreted Constitution to signify implied powers of federal government.

1819-1822 - Samuel Sprigg (Republican), governor.

1822 - Isaac McKim milled flour with steam power, Baltimore, first such operation in country.

1822-1826 - Samuel Stevens, Jr. (Republican), governor.

1824 - Benjamin Lundy published the Genius of Universal Emancipation, Baltimore.

1824-1829 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal constructed through Cecil County to link Chesapeake Bay with Delaware River.

  • Thomas Kensett began canning oysters in Baltimore.
  • Jewish enfranchisement, religious qualification for civil office removed.

1826-1829 - Joseph Kent (Republican), governor.

  • Feb. 28 - Baltimore and Ohio Railroad chartered.
  • July - Boonsboro citizens erected monument to George Washington, South Mountain.
  • Maryland and Virginia Steam Boat Company offered regular Baltimore to Norfolk service.
  • Maryland Penitentiary directors appointed committee to recommend plans for expansion.
  • June - Baltimore Shot Tower begun.
  • July 4 - First earth turned for construction of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (chartered Feb. 1827) and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.

1828-1848 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal constructed (to Cumberland by 1848).

  • Work began on Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad (completed to Pennsylvania line 1832).
  • Oblate Sisters of Providence opened school for black children, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad's Carrollton Viaduct, first masonry railroad bridge in country, crossed Gwynn's Falls.
  • John M. Dyer and twelve others organized State's first Jewish congregation, Nidhei Israel, Baltimore.
  • Chesapeake and Delaware Canal opened.

1829-1830 - Daniel Martin (anti-Jackson), governor.

  • Peter Cooper and other investors started earliest planned industrial area in country at Canton, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station at Mount Clare, first in United States.

1830-1831 - Thomas King Carroll (Democrat), governor.

  • Howard heirs donated land for parks to extend north, south, east, and west of Washington Monument, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Station, Ellicott's Mills.
  • Feb - Maryland Colonization Society formed in Baltimore.

1831-1833 - George Howard (anti-Jackson), governor.

  • Swallow Barn, by John Pendleton Kennedy, published.
  • In aftermath of Nat Turner rebellion in Virginia, Maryland laws enacted to restrict free blacks.
  • Legislation prohibited oyster dredging.
  • First omnibus lines began operating in Baltimore.
  • Oct - Baltimore Saturday Morning Visitor published Edgar Allan Poe's "Ms. Found in a Bottle," winner of fifty-dollar prize.
  • Nov - First settlers sail for Cape Palmas, Liberia.

1833-1836 - James Thomas (anti-Jackson), governor.

1834 - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad reaches Harpers Ferry.

  • Improved Order of Red Men (secret fraternal society) organized Great Council of Maryland, Baltimore.
  • George's Creek Coal and Iron Company formed.
  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad's Thomas Viaduct, first multispan masonry railroad bridge in country, crossed Patapsco River at Relay.
  • Aug. 6-8 - Baltimore mobs demonstrated against Bank of Maryland and its directors .
  • Aug. 25 - Baltimore and Washington Railroad opened.

1836-1839 - Thomas W. Veazey (Whig), governor.

  • Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney wrote majority opinion in Charles River v. Warren Bridge case.
  • Whig-controlled General Assembly enacted law for popular election of governors and State senators, and rotated geographical districts of successive governors.
  • Carroll County formed from Baltimore and Frederick counties.
  • May 17 - Baltimore Sun began publication under Arunah S. Abell.
  • Frederick Douglass escaped from slavery in Baltimore.
  • Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad Company formed.
  • Oct. 3 - Governor and State senators first elected by voters rather than by legislature.
  • Mercantile Library Association.
  • Baltimore City Council established Central High School (later City College).
  • David Carroll and Horatio Gambrill opened textile mills, Hamden-Woodberry.

1839-1842 - William Grason (Democrat), governor.

  • Washington Temperance Society.
  • Baltimore Steam Packet Company (Old Bay Line).
  • Baltimore College of Dental Surgery founded.

1841 - Maryland College of Pharmacy.

1842-1845 - Francis Thomas (Democrat), governor.

  • Jan - Maryland Historical Society founded.
  • May 24 - Samuel F. B. Morse demonstrated telegraph line, sent first telegraph message from Washington, DC, to Baltimore.
  • Lloyd Street Synagogue constructed in Baltimore, first Maryland synagogue, a Robert Cary Long, Jr., design.
  • Frederick Douglass published Narrative of his life in slavery.
  • Baltimore and Cuba Smelting and Mining Company, Baltimore.
  • Oct. 10 - US Naval Academy founded at Annapolis, when Department of the Navy established officers' training school at Fort Severn, Annapolis.

1845-1848 - Thomas G. Pratt (Whig), governor.

1846 - James Corner opened first transatlantic packet line, Baltimore to Liverpool.

  • State Agricultural Chemist, first such in country.
  • John Nepomucene Neumann, Redemptorist priest, built Saints Peter and Paul Catholic Church, Baltimore.

1848-1851 - Philip Francis Thomas (Democrat), governor.

  • Harriet Tubman escaped slavery in Dorchester County.
  • Josiah Henson, former Charles County slave, published his Life.
  • Baltimore railroad stations at President St. (Philadelphia, Wilmington, & Baltimore Railroad) and Calvert St. (Baltimore & Susquehanna Railroad).
  • Sun Iron Building built, Baltimore's first all-iron structure.
  • Oct - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal reached Cumberland.
  • Nov. 4-1851, May 13 - Constitutional Convention of 1850-1851.
  • June 14 - Second State Constitution adopted Howard District recognized as Howard County.
  • Three-masted clipper Seaman, Baltimore, established speed record for sail (94 days) from San Francisco to Cape Henry.

1851-1854 - Enoch Louis Lowe (Democrat), governor.

  • Thomas Kerney introduced bill to aid parochial schools.
  • Loyola College, Baltimore, founded.
  • Association of Maryland Pilots formed.
  • Boston Steamship Company (later Merchants and Miners Transportation) began coastal shipping service, Baltimore.
  • July - Statewide convention of free blacks, Baltimore.
  • Nov - Evangelical groups formed Young Men's Christian Association, Baltimore.

Dec - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad lines reached Wheeling, Virginia.

  • Henry Sonneborn, Baltimore, began manufacturing clothing.
  • Baltimore, Carroll, and Frederick Railroad organized, later became Western Maryland Railroad.

1854 - Baltimore County seat moved to Towson Town.

1854-1858 - Thomas Watkins Ligon (Democrat), governor.

1854-1859 - Rise of Know Nothing Party. Baltimore riots named city "Mobtown."

  • Mary Whitridge, Baltimore-built clipper ship, set transatlantic sailing record (12 1/2 days) never broken.
  • Nov 7 - Know-Nothing Party won elections.
  • Camden St. Station (Baltimore & Ohio Railroad), Baltimore.
  • Hebrew Benevolent Society, Baltimore.
  • Oct.-Nov - Election violence, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore gentlemen formed Maryland Club.
  • Chief Justice Taney wrote majority opinion in case of Dred Scott v. Sanford.
  • Peabody Institute founded in Baltimore (Institute now affiliated with The Johns Hopkins University).

1858-1862 - Thomas Holliday Hicks (Know-Nothing), governor.

  • First horsecar line, Baltimore.
  • Oct. 6 - Maryland Agricultural College opened at College Park, Prince George's County.
  • Oct. 16 - John Brown launched raid from Maryland on federal arsenal in Harper's Ferry, West Virginia.
  • Druid Hill Park opened, Baltimore.
  • General Assembly passed Jacobs bill to enslave free blacks, but measure failed referendum.
  • Irish-born population of Baltimore City peaked (15,536 of 212,418).
  • May - Constitutional Union party formed in Baltimore.
  • Nov - Maryland voters gave John C. Breckinridge (Southern rights Democrat) 42,482 votes, John Bell (Constitutional Union) 41,760, Stephen A. Douglas (popular sovereignty Democrat) 5,966, and Abraham Lincoln (Republican) 2,294 in presidential election.
  • Peabody Institute (later west wing) opened in Baltimore.
  • April - James Ryder Randall wrote "Maryland, My Maryland".
  • April 19 - Sixth Massachusetts Union Regiment attacked by Baltimore mob.
  • April 22 - Federal troops occupied Annapolis.
  • April 26 - General Assembly met in special session at Frederick.
  • April 27 - President Lincoln suspended writ of habeas corpus between Washington and Philadelphia.
  • May 13 - Gen. Benjamin F. Butler's Union forces occupied Baltimore.
  • May 27-28 - Sitting on circuit, Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney called in vain for release of John Merryman.
  • June - Military arrested Baltimore police board members.
  • June 13 - Congressional elections returned Unionist delegation.
  • Sept. 11 - Secretary of War Simon Cameron ordered arrest of secessionist members of General Assembly.
  • Nov - Voters defeated states' rights candidate for governor, Benjamin Chew Howard.
  • May 23 - Marylanders opposed one another at Battle of Front Royal.
  • June 16 - Confederate cavalry entered Cumberland.
  • Sept. 14 - Battle of South Mountain Union troops forced Confederates from Crampton's and Turner's gaps.
  • Sept. 17 - Battle of Antietam (or Sharpsburg), 4,800 dead, 18,000 wounded.
  • Oct. 10-12 - Gen. Jeb Stuart's cavalry rode through Washington, Frederick and Montgomery counties during raid into Pennsylvania.

1862-1866 - Augustus W. Bradford (Unionist), governor.

1863, late June- early July - Lee's army passed through Washington County en route to Gettysburg and in retreat.

  • April 27-Sept. 6 - Constitutional Convention of 1864 met in Annapolis.
  • July 6 - Hagerstown held for ransom by Confederate forces under Gen. Jubal Early.
  • July 9 - Frederick held for ransom by Confederate forces under Gen. Jubal Early.
  • July 9 - Battle of Monocacy Confederates defeated Gen. Lew Wallace, and sent cavalry raiders north of Baltimore, then back through Prince George's County.
  • Oct. 12-13, 29 - Gov. Bradford declared Third State Constitution adopted after soldiers' vote was added to election totals. Soldiers' vote assured adoption of 1864 constitution, which abolished slavery (effective Nov. 1) and required strict loyalty oath of voters. A test oath was required of all voters.

Nov. 1 - Maryland slaves emancipated by State Constitution of 1864.

  • Chesapeake Marine Railway and Dry Dock Company, first black-owned business in State, established by Isaac Myers.
  • General Assembly permitted oyster dredging, but only under sail.
  • April - John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, escaped through Prince George's and Charles counties.
  • Oct - Frederick Douglass dedicated Douglass Institute named in his honor, Baltimore.

1866 - First library of Peabody Institute opened.

1866-1869 - Thomas Swann (Unionist Democrat), governor.

  • Centenary Biblical Institute chartered under auspices of Methodist Episcopal Church later became Morgan State University.
  • Wicomico County created from Somerset and Worcester counties.
  • Isaac Freeman Rasin won election to clerkship, Baltimore City Court of Common Pleas.
  • Knights of Pythias formed in Baltimore.
  • May 8-Aug. 17 - Constitutional Convention of 1867 Democrats rewrote constitution.
  • Sept. 18 - Fourth State Constitution adopted by voters.
  • State Oyster Police authorized.
  • Western Maryland College (now McDaniel College) chartered by Methodists (organized 1866).
  • Regular steamship service between Baltimore and Bremen inaugurated by Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and North German Lloyd.
  • Arthur Pue Gorman won seat in House of Delegates.
  • Wendel A. Bollman built iron truss bridge for Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Savage.
  • July - Isaac Myers and black caulkers in Baltimore formed national black labor union.

1869-1872 - Oden Bowie (Democrat), governor.

  • University of Maryland School of Law reopened.
  • Maryland Jockey Club sponsored racing at Pimlico track.
  • May - Baltimore African Americans parade to celebrate passage of Fifteenth Amendment to US Constitution.
  • Garrett County formed from Allegany County.
  • General Assembly mandated separate but equal white and black schools.
  • Western Maryland Railroad completed line, Hagerstown to Baltimore.

1872-1874 - William Pinkney Whyte (Democrat), governor.

  • School Sisters of Notre Dame established College of Notre Dame of Maryland, Baltimore, first Catholic women's college in United States.
  • May - Allegany County coal miners established Protective and Benevolent Association.
  • July - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad opens Deer Park Hotel, Garrett County.

1874 - Commissioners of Fisheries authorized.

1874-1876 - James Black Groome (Democrat), governor.

  • Ceremonies dedicated Baltimore City Hall, a George Frederick design.
  • Work began on east or library wing, Peabody Institute (completed 1878).
  • Atlantic Hotel constructed, first hotel in Ocean City.
  • Railroad/carriage trestle crossed Sinepuxent Bay at Ocean City.
  • Oct. 3 - The Johns Hopkins University opened in Baltimore.

1876-1880 - John Lee Carroll (Democrat), governor.

  • Jan. 16 - Maryland-Virginia boundary in lower Chesapeake Bay demarcated by Jenkins-Black Award.
  • July 20-22 - Baltimore and Ohio Railroad strike workers went on strike along line, demonstrated in Cumberland, struck and rioted at Baltimore.
  • William Brooks established Chesapeake Zoological Laboratory, Hampton Roads.
  • Young men returned from Newport, Rhode Island, with lacrosse sticks.
  • Knights of Labor organized, Baltimore.

1879 - Telephone exchange opened in Baltimore, first in State.

  • Consolidated Gas Company founded at Baltimore.
  • Electrical energy debuted in Maryland at Sun Building, Baltimore.

1880-1884 - William T. Hamilton (Democrat), governor.

1881, Sept - Oriole Festival celebrated opening of Loch Raven Reservoir.

  • Baltimore reformers won "good judges" election.
  • Harry Vonderhorst sponsored Baltimore team in American Association of baseball clubs.
  • Colored High School opened, Baltimore.
  • Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company formed.
  • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad opened polygonal Passenger Car Shop, largest such structure in world, Baltimore.

1884 - General Assembly, pressured by Knights of Labor, created Bureau of Industrial Statistics and Information.

1884-1885 - Robert M. McLane (Democrat), governor.

  • Baltimore civic leaders established Reform League.
  • African American leaders established Mutual Brotherhood of Liberty.
  • Woman's College of Baltimore chartered by Methodists, later became Goucher College.
  • Bryn Mawr School, Baltimore, founded by M. Carey Thomas.
  • Baltimore-Union Passenger Railway Company, first commercial electric street railway in country.

1885-1888 - Henry Lloyd (Democrat), governor.

  • Linotype machine perfected by Ottmar Mergenthaler, Baltimore.
  • Maryland Progressive State Colored Teachers Association formed.
  • Jan. 5 - Enoch Pratt Free Library opened in Baltimore.
  • Pennsylvania Steel (Maryland Steel, 1891) built blast furnace at Sparrows Point.
  • Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr., designed summer retreat, Sudbrook Park, near Pikesville.
  • Voters north and west of Baltimore City agreed to annexation.
  • Oct - Maryland flag of Calvert and Crossland colors flown at monument dedication ceremonies, Gettysburg.

1888-1889 - Oyster Wars Maryland and Virginia watermen fought on Chesapeake Bay.

1888-1892. Elihu E. Jackson(Democrat), governor.

  • Baltimore Federation of Labor.
  • Henrietta Szold opened school for Jewish immigrant children.
  • May - Floodwaters inundated Cumberland.
  • May 7 - The Johns Hopkins Hospital dedicated in Baltimore.
  • Morgan College formed from Centenary Biblical Institute.
  • Columbian Iron Works, Baltimore, produced Maverick, first steel tanker ship in United States.
  • German-born population of Baltimore City peaked (41,930 of 365,863).
  • Harry S. Cummings won seat on Baltimore City Council, first black in State to hold major elective office.
  • Australian secret ballot in elections adopted.

1891 - Charles H. Grasty assumed control of Baltimore Evening News.

  • State Weather Service started.
  • Baltimore Afro-American founded by John H. Murphy, Sr.
  • Francis G. Newlands developed Chevy Chase.

1892-1896 - Frank Brown (Democrat), governor.

  • Women's College of Frederick founded, later became Hood College.
  • Oct - The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine opened in Baltimore, accepting women.
  • First child labor law passed first pure milk law passed.
  • Baltimore women formed Arundell Club.
  • Provident Hospital, Baltimore, founded by William T. Carr and William H. Thompson.
  • "Coxey's army" passed through State.
  • Baltimore Orioles won their first professional baseball championship.
  • June - Frostburg coal strike.
  • Maryland Bar Association held first convention.
  • Reformers carried Baltimore City and State elections.
  • Charles County seat moved from Port Tobacco to La Plata.
  • Maryland adopted improved "secret" ballot.
  • General Assembly ended practice of electing one US senator from Eastern Shore, passed law restraining courts from compelling reporters to divulge their sources.
  • Office of Game Warden established.
  • Columbian Iron Works built Argonaut, path-breaking submarine.

1896-1900 - Lloyd Lowndes (Republican), governor.

  • Maryland Public Health Association formed, Baltimore.
  • Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., planned west side of Roland Park (company organized 1891).

1898 - Baltimore obtained reformed city charter.

  • William B. Clark issued report on State roads.
  • Baltimore Municipal Art Society formed.
  • Building program began at Naval Academy, Ernest Flagg architect.
  • Nov - Maryland Federation of Women's Clubs organized.

20th Century Maryland History Timeline

1900-1904 - John Walter Smith (Democrat), governor.

  • Regulations for miners' work conditions enacted.
  • Child labor under age twelve forbidden by law.
  • Workmen's compensation law enacted (overturned in courts), first such law in US
  • Compulsory school attendance law passed.
  • Maryland Woman Suffrage Association led by Emma J. Maddox Funck.
  • Kerbin "Jim Crow" public accommodations law enacted.
  • Maryland Association for the Prevention and Relief of Tuberculosis formed, Baltimore.
  • Sinclair-Scott began making Maryland motorcar.
  • Feb 7-8 - Baltimore fire, 70 blocks in heart of business district devastated.

1904-1908 - Edwin Warfield (Democrat), governor.

1905 - Nov - Voters defeated black-disenfranchising Poe amendment.

  • Haman Act enacted, encouraged oyster-bed leasing, established Shell Fish Commission, and provided for survey of Chesapeake Bay bottom.
  • State Board of Forestry created.
  • Equal Suffrage League organized by Elizabeth King Ellicott, Baltimore.
  • March - Maryland Historical Magazine, edited by William Hand Browne, first published by Maryland Historical Society.
  • Nov - "Anchors Aweigh" composed by Charles A. Zimmerman, Naval Academy bandmaster, and midshipman Alfred Hart Miles performed at Army-Navy football game that year later dedicated to Class of 1907.
  • Washington County experimented successfully with horse-drawn bookmobile.
  • Nov - The Johns Hopkins University accepted women graduate students.
  • Primary elections (for some localities) and campaign reform enacted,
  • State Roads Commission created.
  • Board of Agriculture formed.
  • H. L. Mencken became literary editor of Smart Set.

1908-1912 - Austin Lane Crothers (Democrat), governor.

  • Voters defeated Straus anti-black voting amendment.
  • Greek Orthodox parish, first in State, formed in Baltimore.
  • April 6 - Matthew Henson, of Charles County, reached North Pole with Robert Peary.
  • Workmen's compensation law redrafted and enacted.
  • Pure food and drug laws and anti-prostitution measures enacted.
  • State Commissioner of Motor Vehicles authorized.
  • Public Service Commission established.
  • Russian-born population of Baltimore (including Eastern European) peaked (24,798 of 558,485).
  • Aug. 30 - First statewide primary election in Maryland.
  • Nov - Hubert Latham flew over Baltimore during Halethorpe air meet.
  • Baltimore completed sewerage system.
  • Army established flying school at College Park.
  • US Navy used Greenbury Point, Annapolis, as air station.
  • Digges voting amendment defeated.

Isaac E. Emerson built Emerson or "Bromo-Seltzer" Tower, Baltimore.

  • Ten-hour work law for women, strengthened child-labor laws enacted.
  • Haman oyster law enacted,
  • Party presidential primaries adopted.
  • Maryland Suffrage News began publication under Edith H. Hooker.
  • Ukrainian Greek Catholics purchased land for St. Michael's Church, South Wolfe St., Baltimore.

1912-1916 - Phillips Lee Goldsborough (Republican), governor.

1913 - Baltimore Chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), formed, second oldest in country.

1914 - Babe Ruth pitched for International League Orioles.

  • Abraham Flexner and John Backman presented report on State public education.
  • Education reform measures enacted.

Nov. 2 - Referendum and County Home Rule amendments adopted.

  • State Board of Motion Picture Censors authorized.
  • State Conservation Commission created from State Fishery Force, Shell Fish Commission, and Game Warden.
  • The Johns Hopkins University moved to Homewood in Baltimore.
  • Feb - Baltimore Symphony Orchestra organized under Gustav Strube.
  • Nov - Vagabond Players, Baltimore, staged first performance.
  • Nov. 7 - Executive budget process, mandating balanced State budgets, established by constitutional amendment.

1916-1920 - Emerson C. Harrington (Democrat), governor.

  • Compulsory work law enacted.
  • State Council of Defense named.
  • Federal government established Camp Meade (now Fort Meade).
  • US Army placed Maryland militia units in new 29th Division.
  • Aberdeen Proving Ground, first testing center of US Army, established.
  • Edgewood Arsenal formed.
  • Maryland troops fought at Battle of Neuse-Argonne, France.
  • Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission created.
  • Baltimore expanded city limits.
  • Rockefeller Foundation funded School of Hygiene and Public Health at The Johns Hopkins University.
  • H. L. Mencken published first book of Prejudices.
  • Baltimore Orioles won first of six International League pennants.
  • Merit system established for State employees, replaced many politically filled positions in State government.
  • Central Purchasing Bureau reformed State expenditures.
  • State Athletic Commission formed.
  • Maryland Racing Commission created.
  • University of Maryland united agricultural college and Baltimore professional schools.
  • Logan Field (formerly Dundalk Flying Field) dedicated, Baltimore.
  • State's first Air National Guard unit.
  • Nov. 2 - Women voted for first time in Maryland.

1920-1935 - Albert C. Ritchie (Democrat), governor.

  • Eubie Blake staged "Shuffle Along," New York City.
  • Jan - Associated Jewish Charities formed, Baltimore.
  • Quadrennial Elections Amendment mandated general elections every four years instead of every two (effective 1926).
  • Equalization of school spending among counties authorized.
  • Ku Klux Klan rallied in Frederick and Baltimore.
  • Commercial radio stations broadcasted in Baltimore.
  • Albert C. Ritchie campaigned for Democratic presidential nomination.
  • Edna Ferber gathered material for Showboat aboard James Adams's barge Playhouse.
  • H. L. Mencken began editing American Mercury.
  • Floods destroyed much of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal.
  • Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons Island, started as research station by Reginald V. Truitt.
  • Maryland and Virginia passed legislation protecting blue crab.
  • Ammon H. Kreider and Lewis E. Reisner began building single-engine airplanes, Hagerstown.

1926 - Baltimore equalized pay for black and white teachers.

  • Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission formed.
  • Interracial Commission created.

1928 - Grammar-school education mandated.

  • Glenn L. Martin moved aircraft plant from Ohio to Middle River, Baltimore County.
  • New Baltimore Trust Building erected, tallest structure in Baltimore.
  • Baltimore Museum of Art opened (incorporated 1914, first exhibition at Garrett mansion, 1923), Wyman Park, Baltimore.
  • Italian-born population of Baltimore peaked (9,022 of 804,874).
  • The Johns Hopkins University opened Walter Hines Page School of International Relations.
  • Baltimore Trust Company, largest Maryland bank, reorganized (formed Maryland National Bank, May 1933).
  • Feb - Citizens' Emergency Relief Committee organized, Baltimore.
  • March 3 - "Star-Spangled Banner" adopted as national anthem.
  • Dec - Mob lynched Negro in Salisbury.
  • "Bonus army" traveled through Maryland.
  • June - Albert C. Ritchie lost second bid for presidency.
  • Aug - Governor's Advisory Committee on Unemployment Relief, one of first in country, organized.
  • Peoples Unemployment League formed.
  • Storm cut inlet at Ocean City.
  • Billie Holliday auditioned with Benny Goodman orchestra.
  • Abel Wolman chaired new State Planning Commission.
  • Pratt Library, Baltimore, moved to new building.
  • July - State Congress of Farmers and Workers convened in Hagerstown.
  • Nov - Mob lynched black prisoner at Princess Anne.

1934 - Walters Art Gallery opened (built 1909, bequeathed by Henry Walters to city, 1931), Baltimore.

  • County welfare boards authorized.
  • Hall of Records opened, Annapolis.
  • In Murray v. Pearson et al., Baltimore City Court orders integration of University of Maryland Law School. Represented in case by Thurgood Marshall, Donald Gaines Murray registered September 1935.
  • Baltimore Chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, revived under leadership of Lillie Carroll Jackson.
  • Baltimore Transit Company formed from United Railways.
  • University of Maryland School of Law opened to blacks after NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall brought suit.
  • Nov - Pan American flew Martin M-130 flying boat, the China Clipper, on first scheduled air-mail flight to Orient.

1935-1939 - Harry W. Nice (Republican), governor.

  • Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO) strike led to riot, Cumberland.
  • Princess Anne Academy became part of University of Maryland system.
  • March - Floods at Cumberland, National Guard called in.
  • March - Floods at Cumberland, National Guard called in.
  • State income tax instituted.
  • Montgomery County equalized pay for black and white teachers.
  • Pan American Airways inaugurated Baltimore to Bermuda service.
  • St. John's College adopted "great books" curriculum.
  • June 1 - Greenbelt chartered, a New Deal model community.
  • Maryland courts ordered equal pay to black and white teachers in all counties.
  • Federal government began moving National Institutes of Health to site near Bethesda.
  • Martin Company developed Mariner, most serviceable flying boat ever built.
  • Silver Spring Shopping Center opened.
  • June - National Institutes of Health established in Bethesda.
  • Aug - Franklin D. Roosevelt announced plans to purge US Senator Millard E. Tydings.
  • Fairchild Company won competition for Army trainer with PT-19.
  • Ritchie Highway connected Baltimore and Annapolis.
  • Morgan College became part of State system.
  • Feb - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal opened as national park.

1939-1947 - Herbert R. O'Conor (Democrat), governor.

  • Aug - Maryland Council of Defense and Resources created.
  • Nov - Martin Marauder bomber underwent first tests.
  • Maryland State Guard authorized.
  • Board of Natural Resources created, Tidewater Fisheries Department remaining separate.
  • April - Citizens' Planning and Housing Association organized in Baltimore.
  • April-Sept - Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyard produced first Liberty Ship, Patrick Henry.

Dec. 7 - USS. Maryland among naval ships attacked at Pearl Harbor.

  • Andrews Field formed by federal government as major air base, Camp Springs, Prince George's County.
  • Commission to Study the Problems Affecting the Colored Population formed.
  • Feb. Patuxent Air Station, St. Mary's County.
  • April - Baltimore blacks protested police brutality and demanded school board representation.
  • Aug - Naval Medical Center dedicated, Bethesda.

Sept - 29th Division embarked for Britain.

  • "Work or fight" law enacted.
  • Explosion at Elkton ammunition factory killed fifteen workers.
  • Blue-baby operation developed at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, pioneering heart surgery era.
  • June - Troops of 29th Division landed on Omaha Beach.
  • New Baltimore municipal airport in Anne Arundel County recommended by Baltimore mayoral commission.

1945 - Slum clearance began in Baltimore by Redevelopment Commission.

Montgomery County Junior College opened, first in State.

Oct - Maryland Congress against Discrimination met in Baltimore.

  • New roads program to include bay bridge enacted.
  • Higher income tax legislated.
  • "Baltimore Plan" housing court, first in country, enforced building codes.
  • Commercial television stations broadcasted from Baltimore and Washington, DC.
  • Edmondson Village Shopping Center.

July 1. State sales tax instituted, first in state history.

1947-1951 - William Preston Lane (Democrat), governor.

  • Montgomery became first Maryland county to adopt charter form of government ("home rule").
  • Baltimore activists tested segregated tennis court policy, Druid Hill Park, Baltimore.
  • Constitutional amendments limited governor to two terms, mandated annual meetings of Legislature.
  • Department of Mental Hygiene established.
  • General Assembly spent heavily on public schools.
  • Ober loyalty law enacted.
  • Slot machines allowed by law in Southern Maryland.
  • Law suit opened University of Maryland School of Nursing to blacks.
  • Jan - Alger Hiss sentenced for perjury.
  • June - Friendship International Airport began service.
  • June 24 - Friendship International Airport (now BWI) began operation.
  • Commission on Interracial Problems and Relations formed.
  • University of Maryland graduate school integrated.
  • Baltimore inaugurated pilot program to upgrade blighted housing, opened golf courses to blacks.

1951-1959 - Theodore R. McKeldin (Republican), governor.

  • Historic Annapolis, Inc., organized.
  • Nation's first intensive care facility established at Johns Hopkins Hospital.
  • Polytechnic High School in Baltimore integrated.
  • July 30 - Chesapeake Bay Bridge opened.
  • St. Louis Browns moved to Baltimore, became American League Orioles.
  • University of Maryland integrated, first state university below Mason-Dixon Line to do so.
  • Public housing in Baltimore integrated.
  • First black elected to House of Delegates, from Baltimore.
  • Baltimore-Washington Expressway opened.
  • May - Thurgood Marshall and NAACP won Brown v. Board decision (May).
  • Sept - Baltimore City and Western Shore counties desegregated schools using freedom of choice.
  • Maryland National Guard units integrated.
  • Jan. Greater Baltimore Committee organized by business leaders.
  • Sept - Desegregation of public schools began.
  • Voting machines first used for elections throughout State.
  • Maryland Port Authority (now Maryland Port Administration) created.
  • Equal employment ordinance enacted, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore Regional Planning Council (now Baltimore Metropolitan Council) formed.
  • I-70 (north) connected Frederick and Baltimore.
  • Washington County educational television project began.
  • The Floating Opera, by John Barth, published.
  • James W. Rouse opened Mondawmin Mall, Baltimore.
  • Dec - Baltimore Urban Renewal and Housing Agency established, Baltimore urban renewal began.
  • Maryland dissolved 1785 compact with Virginia.
  • I-70 (south) connected Frederick and Washington, DC.
  • Cone Wing opened, Baltimore Museum of Art.
  • Nov. 30 - Baltimore Harbor Tunnel opened.
  • James W. Rouse built Harundale Mall, Anne Arundel County, first enclosed shopping center in State.
  • March - Greater Baltimore Committee unveiled plans for Charles Center.
  • Nov - Maryland Port Authority purchased Harbor Field with plans for Dundalk Marine Terminal.
  • Dec - Baltimore Colts, National Football League champions.
  • Baltimore Colts again National Football League champions.
  • I-83 linked Baltimore and Harrisburg.
  • May - Goddard Space Flight Center opened in Greenbelt.

1959-1967 - J. Millard Tawes (Democrat), governor.

  • Appalachian Regional Development Commission formed at Annapolis governors' meeting.
  • Department of Chesapeake Bay Affairs created.
  • Department of Economic Development formed.
  • Political appointment of Baltimore magistrates ended.
  • Maryland Historical Trust authorized.
  • House of Delegates reapportioned.
  • Baltimore City and Montgomery County adopted open accommodations.
  • Voters approved Reed Commission fisheries agreement with Virginia.
  • Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson, published.
  • Jones Falls Expressway opened.
  • July - Baltimore Beltway (I-695) opened through Baltimore County, encircling Baltimore City.
  • Law enacted to phase out slot machines.
  • Open accommodations law enacted, limited to Baltimore City and twelve counties.
  • Advisory Council on Higher Education formed to oversee three-tiered college system.
  • I-95 connected Baltimore and Wilmington.
  • June 11 - Cambridge riots. National Guard remained through May 1965.
  • July - Black and white clergymen forced integration of Gwynn Oak amusement park.

Oct - Rouse announced plan to build Columbia in Howard County.

  • Maryland Committee for Fair Representation won court test regarding Maryland senate representation.
  • Governor's Commission on the Status of Women initiated.
  • Eastern Shore leaders established Wye Institute, Queen Anne's County.
  • Dundalk Marine Terminal began handling containerized cargoes.
  • April 7 - Public accommodations law enacted.
  • Aug. 16 - Capital Beltway (I-495) opened, encircling Washington, DC, by passing through Maryland's Prince George's and Montgomery counties, and Virginia.
  • Second bay bridge authorized.
  • Fair employment law enacted.
  • St. Mary's City Commission formed.
  • Oyster law permitted dredging under power, two days a week.
  • University of Maryland campus at Baltimore County opened.
  • Oct - Baltimore Orioles won World Series.
  • Voters largely rejected open housing referendum.
  • Morris A. Mechanic Theater opened, Baltimore.
  • Merriweather Post Pavilion opened, Columbia.
  • June 21 - Opening of Columbia, a planned community incorporating one-tenth of Howard County land area.
  • July 25 - Cambridge riots.
  • Sept. 12-1968, Jan. 10 - Constitutional Convention of 1967-1968 met at Annapolis.
  • Nov - Richard A. Henson inaugurated air service between Hagerstown and Baltimore.

1967-1969 - Spiro T. Agnew (Republican), governor.

  • Baltimore Urban Renewal and Housing Authority under Robert C. Embry, Jr., established residents' advisory board.
  • Maryland Magazine published.
  • Marshall W. Nirenberg, National Institutes of Health scientist, won Nobel Prize.
  • April - Riots in Baltimore and Washington, DC, followed assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King.
  • May 14 - Proposed State Constitution rejected by voters.

1969-1977 - Marvin Mandel (Democrat), governor.

  • Jan. Marvin Mandel elected governor by General Assembly to succeed Vice President-elect Sprio T. Agnew. Mandel adopted cabinet system of State government.
  • Maryland Commission on Negro History and Culture authorized.
  • Chesapeake Bay Interagency Planning Committee initiated.
  • Maryland Public Broadcasting aired.
  • Constellation moored permanently at Pier 1, Baltimore.
  • Baltimore Gas and Electric Company began construction of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Solomons.
  • Oct. 5 - Maryland Public Television first broadcasted from Owings Mills (channel 67).
  • New environmental legislation enacted.
  • Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies created by University of Maryland Board of Regents.
  • I-70 opened from Frederick to Hancock.
  • Spring - Student rebellion at University of Maryland College Park.
  • Sept - Baltimore staged first city fair.
  • Oct - Baltimore Orioles won World Series.
  • Nov. 3 - Voters approved independent General Assembly salary board.
  • Baltimore Colts won Super Bowl.
  • State adopted open housing legislation.
  • First high-rise condominium, Ocean City.
  • I-95 opened between Baltimore and Washington, DC.
  • State equal rights amendment enacted, approved women's equal rights amendment to US Constitution.
  • Nov. 7 - First general election in Maryland where lowering of voting age to 18 years of age or older applied.
  • Second parallel Chesapeake Bay Bridge opened.
  • State adopted lottery.
  • Friendship Airport reopened as Baltimore-Washington International (BWI) Airport.
  • Johns Hopkins physicians and scientists developed first heart pacemaker.
  • John Barth won National Book Award for Chimera.
  • Sept - Urban "homesteading" began in Baltimore. City sold abandoned houses for $1 each to encourage renovation.
  • Oct - Spiro T. Agnew resigned vice-presidency, pleaded no contest to felony charge.
  • Walters Art Gallery new wing opened, Baltimore.
  • Nov. 5 - Both houses of General Assembly elected, for first time, on basis of equal representation by population.
  • Center Stage reopened in converted St. Ignatius Church/Loyola College complex, Baltimore.
  • Mother Elizabeth Seton canonized by Pope Paul VI.
  • May - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant began operation in Calvert County.
  • Maryland Science Center opened in Baltimore.
  • Washington Metro, rapid transit system for national capital area, opened to link stations in Maryland, Washington, DC, and Virginia.
  • State civic and history groups marked national bicentennial.
  • Melbourne Smith (builder) and City of Baltimore launched replica clipper Pride of Baltimore, Inner Harbor, Baltimore.
  • World Trade Center opened, Baltimore.
  • Bishop John Nepomucene Neumann canonized by Pope Paul VI.
  • Aug. Marvin Mandel found guilty on mail fraud charges, appealed decision, succeeded by Lt. Governor Blair Lee III.

1977-79 - Blair Lee III (Democrat), acting governor.

  • Jim Richardson (builder) launched replica pinnace Maryland Dove, LeCompte Creek, Dorchester County.
  • Sept. 5-17. Camp David Accords negotiated at Camp David, Frederick County, between President Jimmy Carter, President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, and Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel. Signed in Washington, DC, March 26, 1979.
  • Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith of Johns Hopkins Hospital won Nobel Prizes for medicine.
  • Baltimore Convention Center.

1979-1987 - Harry Hughes (Democrat), governor.

  • Maryland and Virginia established Chesapeake Bay Commission to coordinate interstate legislative planning and programs to restore Bay resources.
  • July 2 - Harborplace, a 3-acre center of restaurants and shops, opened in Baltimore, signaling revitalization of City's Inner Harbor.

1981 - National Aquarium opened in Baltimore.

1983 - Dec. 9 - Chesapeake Bay Agreement to improve water quality and living resources of Bay signed by Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, District of Columbia, Chesapeake Bay Commission, and US Environmental Protection Agency.

1987 - Dec. 14 - Chesapeake Bay Agreement to restore and protect Bay signed by Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, District of Columbia, Chesapeake Bay Commission, and US Environmental Protection Agency.

1987-1995 - William Donald Schaefer (Democrat), governor.

  • April 6 - Orioles Park at Camden Yards, a stadium for the Baltimore Orioles baseball team, opened in downtown Baltimore.
  • May 18 - Central Corridor Light Rail Line opened through Baltimore.

1993 - Sept. 10 - Chesapeake Bay Partnership Agreement, to reduce pollution in Bay's tributaries by the year 2000, signed by Governor, Maryland's 23 counties, and Baltimore City.

  • Parris N. Glendening (Democrat), governor.
  • May 31 - Baltimore Metro extension opened from Charles Center to Johns Hopkins Hospital.
  • Sept. 6 - PSINet Stadium, home to the Baltimore Ravens National Football League team, opened at Camden Yards in Baltimore.
  • Oct. 15-19 - Wye Summit. Middle East Peace Talks between Israel and the Palistine Liberation Organization were held at Aspen Institute's Wye River Conference Centers, Queen Anne's County. The Wye River Memorandum, resulting from the talks, was signed in Washington, DC, Oct. 23, 1998.

21st Century Maryland History Timeline

2000 - June 28 - Chesapeake Bay Agreement, (Chesapeake 2000), established regional standards for Bay restoration, signed by Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, District of Columbia, Chesapeake Bay Commission, and US Environmental Protection Agency.

2004 - Maryland celebrated Flag Centennial

2006 - Maryland had lowest poverty rate in US

  • Nation's first Living Wage law enacted in Maryland
  • Middle East Peace Conference held at U. S. Naval Academy in Annapolis
  • Walking became official state exercise
  • Maryland first state to name offical state exercise

2010 - Baltimore Mayor Sheila Dixon resigned after conviction of embezzlement


Massachusetts historic homes and sites conserve the state's past

Massachusetts is a treasure for adults and kids interested is seeing the history of Puritan, Colonial, and Revolutionary times during a New England vacation. Historic homes and historic sites in Massachusetts cover a huge range, from Boston's Freedom Trail and Plymouth Rock to to Minute Man National Park in the Merrimack region where the Revolutionary War began. History fans can see reenactments of Revolutionary War battles and visit 19th-century towns like Old Sturbridge Village. The possibilities for a history-themed vacation trip are endless.

Plymouth 400 Inc.

6 Main Street Ext. - Post Office Square Plymouth, MA, 02360 Phone: 508-812-2020

Relive 400 years of history during Plymouth’s yearlong anniversary celebration

Highfield Hall & Gardens

56 Highfield Drive Falmouth, MA Phone: 508-495-1878

Old Sturbridge Village

1 Old Sturbridge Village Road, off Route 20 Sturbridge, MA, 01566 Phone: 508-347-3362 Toll-Free: 800-733-1830

The 1830s are preserved in the homes and buildings in Old Sturbridge Village

Fully immerse yourself in the nation’s past with a visit to Old Sturbridge Village, a 200-acre re-creation of rural village life in 1830s New England. More than 40 original homes and buildings have been assembled from throughout New England to give visitors a hands-on sense of history. The Asa Knight Store, for example, was built in Dummerston, Vt., in 1810 the Friends Meetinghouse was built in Bolton, Mass., in 1796. Other buildings include the District School, Blacksmith Shop, the Greek-Revival-style Thompson Bank and a circa 1840 Cider Mill with its original cider press. Homes range from a parsonage to the elegant Towne House.

American Heritage Museum

568 Main Street Hudson, MA, 01749 Phone: 978-562-9182

Heritage museum strives to make the nation’s military history come alive

The museum is now open! Wednesdays-Sundays from 10am-5pm. Advance ticketing is preferred - Please call or visit our website.

Visitors to the American Heritage Museum will feel like they were there as they stroll past exhibits and detailed dioramas that make history, and the sacrifice of those who fought in America’s battles, truly come alive. The 67,000 square-foot museum has recreated everything from trench life in World War II to D-Day and the War in the Pacific during World War II to Korea, Vietnam, the Cold War (which includes a segment of the Berlin Wall), the Gulf War (including a SCUD missile and launcher) and today’s War on Terror. The museum’s extraordinary collection of tanks and other vehicles play key roles in the exhibits. Also featured is a series of living history events, from tank demonstration days to World War II re-enactments.


The last charge of the bicycle brigade

Posted On May 14, 2021 03:45:00

In World Wars I and II, where thousands of tanks clashed on land and hundreds of ships fought at sea, and millions of men charged each other through trenches and across hills and valleys on foot, hundreds of thousands of soldiers fought from their trusty steeds: the bicycle.

Yeah, the two-wheeled contraptions that most kids get for Christmas or a birthday a few times throughout their childhood was once a cutting-edge weapon of war — and they were effective.

Indian bicycle troops at the Battle of the Somme in 1916.
(Imperial War Museums)

The modern bicycle, with pedals and two wheels, emerged in the 1860s and slowly turned the “velocipede” from a leisure device of rich gentlemen into a viable method of transport. Fairly quickly, especially after the introduction of rubber tires, military experts saw a role for bicycles in wartime.

The European powers embraced the new technology first — not surprising, since that’s where the bike originated. Most military advocates pushed for the bike as a scout vehicle, allowing observers to get close to the front or ride near enemy units to collect data and then quickly get away with the information to friendly lines.

But, by the 1880s, there were already hotly debated movements to use the cyclists as a sort of alternate mounted infantry. Mounted infantrymen rode horses like cavalry, but generally dismounted and fought on foot when they arrived at the battle. They could cover more ground and often acted as a vanguard, tying down enemy forces until their foot-bound brethren could arrive.

In the late 1800s, cyclists took on challenges to prove their worth in battle. Bicycle infantry covered 40 miles a day with all their gear to prove they were more mobile, and messenger cyclists raced other signal soldiers working with flags and torches to prove who was faster. The cyclists won most of the competitions, and one messenger unit delivered from Washington, D.C. to Denver in just six days, covering approximately 1,700 miles while climbing 5,000 feet in altitude.

An ad recruiting cyclists for the British military.
(Imperial War Museums)

By the time Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in 1914 — coincidentally, on June 28, the same day that the 12th Tour de France began — cyclists were an accepted part of warfare.

As The Great War got underway, Allied governments rushed to increase the size of their cyclists corps. Reconnaissance cyclist John Parr, a 17-year-old who had lied about his age to join, was possibly Britain’s first casualty of the war, taking fire from German troops while relaying messages.

As the war ground on, Great Britain bought bicycles and trained troops to ride them, famously advertising that “bad teeth” were “no bar” to joining. Bicycle infantry units rode around the front, quickly reinforcing areas that had suffered unsustainable losses from German attacks or plussing up British positions for major attacks. Cyclists mounted coastal patrols and fought fires in areas raided by German aircraft.

And cyclists were added to standard units with even conventional infantry units getting a few cyclists to ride ahead and get orders, relaying them back to the unit so it could deploy effectively as it arrived. Eventually, even artillery units got cyclists, and some even experimented with towing the guns, especially machine guns, behind the bicycles. (This was one job that bikes weren’t great for. Just watch a dad huffing and puffing away while towing their kid — then imagine the kid weighs hundreds of pounds.)

It’s all whimsical and charming until you realize these are Nazi SS soldiers and they likely used the bicycles to more quickly murder people.
(German Federal Archives, CC BY-SA 3.0)

By the end of World War I, hundreds of thousands of troops were serving in bicycle units or roles, but the increasing role of the automobile threatened their continued use in warfare. Italy even equipped their elite marksmen, the Bianchi, with the bicycle so they could strike faster.

After all, many of the bike’s advantages over walking the speed and the efficiency, or horseback riding, no animal to care for and feed, were also true of the automobiles. And, except for the need for gasoline, the automobile was simply a better tool. It was faster, could carry heavier loads, and it was less draining on the operator’s mind and body.

So, when World War II rolled around, the bicycle took on a smaller role, but it still served, mostly with scouts and the occasional military maneuver. Britain actually created a special bicycle for paratroopers, but then got larger gliders that could carry Jeeps before D-Day, so the bikes went ashore with Canadian soldiers and others instead of paratroopers.

Bicycle-mounted troops were key for many counterattacks or quick movements, especially where supply lines were long, or the demand for fuel for tanks was high. The fuel problems of Germany led to a greater concentration of bicycles in their units while the Allies, with better logistics and greater natural resources, relied more heavily on vehicles.

After World War II, some European militaries continued to employ these two-wheeled vehicles for reconnaissance and even anti-tank roles. Switzerland even kept its bicycle units around until 2001, nearly a century after standing up their first bicycle unit.

Today, bicycles enjoy a very limited role in special operations and espionage. U.S. operators even used bikes in Iraq and Afghanistan. But don’t expect a sudden increase in bicycle operations unless more guerrilla forces embrace them. A modern military is more likely to increase mobility with helicopters and armored vehicles. And, if necessary, electric motorcycles would provide much of the stealth of bicycles and even better mobility without wearing out the rider.

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Collection Contents

Series 0001. Risdon Iron Works order books, 1884-1906

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0001. Vol. AA, 1884 June-1886 August

File Unit 0002. Vol. BB, 1884 September-1885 January

File Unit 0003. Vol. CC, 1884 November-1885 May

File Unit 0004. Vol. DD, 1885 April-1886 February

File Unit 0005. Vol. EE, 1885 June-1885 November

File Unit 0006. Vol. FF, 1885 September-1886 April

File Unit 0007. Vol. GG, 1886 January-1886 July

File Unit 0008. Vol. HH, 1886 May-1886 November

File Unit 0009. Vol. II, 1886 August-1887 January

File Unit 0010. Vol. JJ, 1886 October-1887 March

File Unit 0011. Vol. KK, 1887 January-1887 August

File Unit 0012. Vol. LL, 1887 April-1887 November

File Unit 0013. Vol. MM, 1887 June- 1888 January

File Unit 0014. Vol. NN, 1887 October-1888 July

File Unit 0015. Vol. OO, 1888 February-1889 January

File Unit 0016. Vol. PP, 1888 May-1889 May

File Unit 0017. Vol. QQ, 1888 September-1889 January

File Unit 0018. Vol. RR, 1888 December-1889 June

File Unit 0019. Vol. SS, 1889 February-1889 August

File Unit 0020. Vol. TT, 1889 June-1890 April

File Unit 0021. Vol. UU, 1889 October-1891 April

File Unit 0022. Vol. VV, 1890 January-1890 June

File Unit 0023. Vol. WW, 1890 May-1890 November

File Unit 0024. Vol. XX, 1890 September-1891 June

File Unit 0025. Vol. YY, 1891 February-1892 September

File Unit 0026. Vol. ZZ, 1891 May-1892 August

File Unit 0027. Vol. A3, 1891 August-1891 December

File Unit 0028. Vol. B3, 1891 October-1892 August

File Unit 0029. Vol. C3, 1892 January-1892 December

File Unit 0030. Vol. D3, 1892 March-1892 October

File Unit 0031. Vol. E3, 1892 July-1893 January

File Unit 0032. Vol. F3, 1892 October-1893 April

File Unit 0033. Vol. G3, 1893 February-1893 May

File Unit 0034. Vol. H3, 1893 March-1893 October

File Unit 0035. Vol. I3, 1893 September-1894 June

File Unit 0036. Vol. J3, 1894 April-1894 November

File Unit 0037. Vol. K3, 1894 October-1895 July

File Unit 0038. Vol. L3, 1895 June-1895 November

File Unit 0039. Vol. M3, 1895 October-1896 March

File Unit 0040. Vol. N3, 1896 February-1896 December

File Unit 0041. Vol. O3, 1896 July-1896 December

File Unit 0042. Vol. P3, 1896 November-1897 May

File Unit 0043. Vol. Q3, 1897 January-1897 September

File Unit 0044. Vol. R3, 1897 August-1898 January

File Unit 0045. Vol. S3, 1897 November-1898 August

File Unit 0046. Vol. T3, 1898 January-1898 August

File Unit 0047. Vol. U3, 1898 March-1899 January

File Unit 0048. Vol. V3, 1898 June-1898 November

File Unit 0049. Vol. W3, 1898 August-1899 February

File Unit 0050. Vol. X3, 1898 October-1899 June

File Unit 0051. Vol. Y3, 1898 November-1899 June

File Unit 0052. Vol. Z3, 1899 January-1899 May

File Unit 0053. Vol. A4, 1899 February-1899 April

File Unit 0054. Vol. B4, 1899 January-1899 August

File Unit 0055. Vol. C4, 1899 April-1901 November

File Unit 0056. Vol. D4, 1899 January-1900 February

File Unit 0057. Vol. E4, 1899 August-1900 July

File Unit 0058. Vol. F4, 1899 October-1900 September

File Unit 0059. Vol. G4, 1899 December-1900 December

File Unit 0060. Vol. H4, 1900 January-1900 September

File Unit 0061. Vol. I4, 1900 February-1900 December

File Unit 0062. Vol. J4, 1900 May-1901 December

File Unit 0063. Vol. K4, 1900 June-1900 September

File Unit 0064. Vol. L4, 1900 July-1901 August

File Unit 0065. Vol. M4, 1900 September-1902 February

File Unit 0066. Vol. N4, 1900 October-1901 September

File Unit 0067. Vol. O4, 1900 January-1902 August

File Unit 0068. Vol. P4, 1900 January-1902 December

File Unit 0069. Vol. Q4, 1900 January-1902 June

File Unit 0070. Vol. R4, 1901 April-1902 August

File Unit 0071. Vol. S4, 1901 May-1902 April [October?]

File Unit 0072. Vol. T4, 1901 June-1902 February

File Unit 0073. Vol. U4, 1901 September-1902 April

File Unit 0074. Vol. V4, 1901 November-1902 November

File Unit 0075. Vol. W4, 1902 January-1902 September

File Unit 0076. Vol. X4, 1901 March-1903 January

File Unit 0077. Vol. 1884, 1884

File Unit 0078. Vol. 1887, 1887

File Unit 0079. Vol. 1891, 1891

File Unit 0080. Vol. 1892, 1892

File Unit 0081. Vol. 1893, 1893

File Unit 0082. Vol. 1894, 1894

File Unit 0083. Vol. 1895, 1895

File Unit 0084. Vol. 1896, 1896

File Unit 0085. Vol. 1897, 1897

File Unit 0086. Vol. 1898, 1898

File Unit 0087. Vol. 1899, 1899

File Unit 0088. Vol. 1900, 1900

File Unit 0089. Vol. 1901, 1901

File Unit 0090. Vol. 1902, 1902

File Unit 0091. Vol. 1903, 1903

File Unit 0092. Vol. 1904, 1904

File Unit 0093. Vol. 1905, 1905

File Unit 0094. Vol. 1906, 1906

Series 0002. Union Iron Works cost books, 1892-1904

Scope and Content Note

  • Box 95 - volume 2, November 1892 - April 1895
  • Box 96 - volume 3, January 1895 - December 1896
  • Box 97 - volume 4, December 1896 - December 1900
  • Box 98 - volume 5, January 1898 - January 1899
  • Box 99 - volume 6, January 1899 - August 1902
  • Box 100 - volume 7, January 1900 - December 1900
  • Box 101 - volume 8, January 1901 - February 1902
  • Box 102 - volume 9, February 1902 - March 1903
  • Box 103 - volume 10, March 1903 - February 1904

File Unit 0001. Cost Book #2, 1892 November-1895 April

File Unit 0002. Cost Book #3, 1895 January-1896 December

File Unit 0003. Cost Book #4, 1896 December-1900 December

File Unit 0004. Cost Book #5, 1898 January-1899 January

File Unit 0005. Cost Book #6, 1899 January-1902 August

File Unit 0006. Cost Book #7, 1900 January-1900 December

File Unit 0007. Cost Book #8, 1901 January-1902 February

File Unit 0008. Cost Book #9, 1902 February-1903 March

File Unit 0009. Cost Book #10, 1903 March-1904 February

Series 0003. Scrapbooks, 1850-1947

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0001. Col. John S. Ellis scrapbook, 1850-1862

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0002. Photos 2 scrapbook, 1885-1904

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0003. Invoice scrapbook, 1888-1901

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0004. Union Iron Works scrapbook, 1888-1904

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0005. Invoices scrapbook, 1902-1916

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0006. Prescriptions scrapbook, 1906-1914

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0007. Scrapbook, 1918-1919

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0008. Scrapbook, 1919-1922

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0009. Scrapbook from January 1st, 1925, 1920-1928

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0010. Commencing 1942 scrapbook, 1942-1947

Scope and Content Note

Series 0004. Sales Books, 1895-1906

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0001. First Street Works, Union Iron Works, Number 2 sales book, 1895 November-1898 December

File Unit 0002. First Street Works, Union Iron Works sales book, 1899 March-1902 April

File Unit 0003. Union Iron Works Number 3 sales book, 1899 January-1900 October

File Unit 0004. Union Iron Works Number 4 sales book, 1900 October-1903 October

File Unit 0005. Union Iron Works Number 5 sales book, 1900 October-1903 October

File Unit 0006. Union Iron Works Number 6 sales book, 1903 October-1906 August

File Unit 0007. Union Iron Works Number 7 sales book, 1903 October-1906 August

Series 0005. Specifications, 1898-1922

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0001. Specifications, 1910-1922

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0002. Specifications, 1898-1901

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0003. S.S. Manchuria, 1906-1914

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0004. Specifications for refitting vessels: Vol. 1-3, 1908-1912

Scope and Content Note

Series 0006. Business-Related Documents, 1888-1978, undated

Scope and Content Note

Subseries 0006.0001. Subseries: Risdon Iron Works Dredger Parts Ledgers, 1902-1911

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0001. Cast Steel Dredger Parts, Risdon Iron Works, City Office, Steuart St., 1902 October 22 - 23

File Unit 0002. Risdon Iron Works Dredger Parts index, ca.1907 and 1911

File Unit 0003. Risdon Iron Works Dredger Parts Ledger, 1907 April 6 - 1911 Aug 12

Subseries 0006.0002. Subseries: Correspondence - J. A. McGregor, President, Union Iron Works, 1912-1916 and undated

Scope and Content Note

  • File Unit 1, Index
  • File Unit 2, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 1-50
  • File Unit 3, copies of outgoing , letters 51-61 and 92-132
  • File Unit 4, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 133-184
  • File Unit 5, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 185-225
  • File Unit 6, copies of outgoing letters, pages 226-276
  • File Unit 7, copies of outgoing letters, pages 277-329
  • File Unit 8, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 330-380
  • File Unit 9, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 381-431
  • File Unit 10, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 432-468
  • File Unit 11, mileage charts
  • File Unit 12, Index
  • File Unit 13, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 1-50
  • File Unit 14, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 52-101
  • File Unit 15, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 102-149
  • File Unit 16, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 151- 200 and 207
  • File Unit 17, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 201-255 (letters out of order)
  • File Unit 18, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 256- 299
  • File Unit 19, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 300-351
  • File Unit 20, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 352 - 400
  • File Unit 21, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 401-421
  • File Unit 22, Index
  • File Unit 23, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 1-51
  • File Unit 24, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 53-100
  • File Unit 25, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 101-150
  • File Unit 26, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 151-200
  • File Unit 27, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters, pages 201-251
  • File Unit 28, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 252-301
  • File Unit 29, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 302-350
  • File Unit 30, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 351-403
  • File Unit 31, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 404-449
  • File Unit 32, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 450-482
  • File Unit 33, Index
  • File Unit 34, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 1-51
  • File Unit 35, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 52-101
  • File Unit 36, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 102-151
  • File Unit 37, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 152-201 and 207
  • File Unit 38, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 202-250
  • File Unit 39, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 251-300
  • File Unit 40, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 301-317
  • File Unit 41, Index
  • File Unit 42, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 1-49
  • File Unit 43, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 50-100
  • File Unit 44, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 101-150
  • File Unit 45, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 151-200
  • File Unit 46, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 201-250
  • File Unit 47, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 251-300
  • File Unit 48, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 301-350
  • File Unit 49, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 351-400
  • File Unit 50, copies of outgoing correspondence, letters 401-470
  • File Unit 51, Index
  • File Unit 52 copies of correspondence, letters 1-50
  • File Unit 53, copies of correspondence, letters 51-100
  • File Unit 54, copies of correspondence, letters 101-150
  • File Unit 55, copies of correspondence, letters 151-200
  • File Unit 56, copies of correspondence, letters 210-250
  • File Unit 57, copies of correspondence, letters 251-300
  • File Unit 58, copies of correspondence, letters 301-390

Subseries 0006.0003. Subseries: Documents, 1892-1978

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0001. Risdon Iron Works, Customer Work Log, 1911-1915

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0002. Order Book, 1892 May 20 - 1892 October 28

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0003. Risdon Iron Works, Miscellaneous plans, tables, and specifications, 1899 November 4

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0004. Honor Roll of Our Glorious Dead, World War II, undated

File Unit 0005. Program, Bethlehem Steel Army-Navy Production Award, San Francisco Yard, 1942 December 11

File Unit 0006. Bethlehem Steel Board of Directors Tour of the San Francisco Yard packet, 1967 October 25

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0007. Dock Trials, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0008. Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. Union Plant repair list, 1920 July 2

File Unit 0009. Risdon Iron and Locomotive Works Order Sheets, 1910

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0010. Ruth Teiser Research, 1944-1946

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0011. Launching Invitations and Programs, 1904-1978

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0012. Letter, UIW President to Le Prince Alexis Dolgoroukoff, 1900 June 4

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0013. Daily Work Order List, 1914

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0014. Plan, Propeller, 1930

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0015. Specifications and Plans, 20" Suction Dredge, 1924

Scope and Content Note

Subseries 0006.0004. Subseries: Order Records, 1908-1915

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0001. Order Records, Bundle 1, 1908

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0002. Order Records, Bundle 2, 1908

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0003. Order Records, Bundle 3, 1909

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0004. Order Records, Bundle 4, 1908-1909

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0005. Order Records, Bundle 5, 1908-1910

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0006. Order Records, Bundle 6, 1908-1910

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0007. Order Records, Bundle 7, 1908-1910

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0008. Order Records, Bundle 8, 1914

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0009. Order Records, Bundle 9, 1915

Scope and Content Note

Subseries 0006.0005. Subseries: Catalog of Risdon Iron and Locomotive Works, San Francisco, CA, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0001. Catalog of Risdon Iron and Locomotive Works, San Francisco, CA, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0002. Batteries, Arrangements, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0003. Battery Details, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0004. Battery Specifications and Tables, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0005. Boilers, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0006. Boilers Tables, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0007. Bryan Mills, [1906-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0008. Cars, Cages, and Skips, [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0009. Concentrators, [1906-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0010. Condensers, Heaters, and Traps, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0011. Catalog Covers, [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0012. Crushers, [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0013. Dredgers, Arrangements, [1906-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0014. Dredgers, Details, [1906-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0015. Elevators, Hydraulic, [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0016. Engines, Stationary, [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0017. Engines, Vertical, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0018. Furnaces and Retorts, [1906-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0019. Gates and Valves, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0020. Giants, Hydraulic, [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0021. Hoists, [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0022. Mills, Gold and Silver, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0023. Miss. Tables, Data, etc., [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0024. Ore Bin Gates and Feeders, [1906-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0025. Pans, Grinding, Combination etc., [1906-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0026. Pipe, [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0027. Pipe Fittings and Flanges, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0028. Pulleys, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0029. Pumps, [1906-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0030. Tanks, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0031. Trolleys and Chain Blocks, [1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0032. Water, Wheels. Arrangements, [1906- 1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0033. Water Wheel Tables, [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0034. Miscellaneous, [1907-1908?]

Scope and Content Note

Subseries 0006.0006. Subseries: Miscellaneous Business-Related Documents, 1885-1972

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0001. Union Tugboat Logbook, 1908-1913

File Unit 0002. Concrete Graving Dock, Thesis, 1927

File Unit 0003. Shops Expense Totals, 1913 January - 1917 August

File Unit 0004. Cost Completion Ledger, re: Hulls 106 &107, 1912

File Unit 0005. Account Book, 1906 April - 1909 February

File Unit 0006. Billings, 1892 Feb 10 - 1905 Jan 21

File Unit 0007. Estimate Book, 1897-1912

File Unit 0008. Tank Estimates, 1892-1908

File Unit 0009. Stationary Boilers (estimates), 1899 December 22 - 1905 January 21

File Unit 0010. Supply Record 16, 1917 March 23 - 1919 September 9

File Unit 0011. Supply Record 17, 1922 February 3 - 1925 November 16

File Unit 0012. Summary of Operating Expenses, 1930-1932

File Unit 0013. Furniture Folio, 1945-1947

File Unit 0014. Documents, SS Japan Mail, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0015. Documents, SS Philippine Mail, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0016. Documents, SS Washington Mail, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0017. Booklet, Beams, 1903 November

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0018. Standard Sub-Division of Vessel Costs, 1936 January 1

File Unit 0019. Record, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0020. Documents of Recognition, Commendation, and Achievement, 1898 July 21 - 1983 May 21

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0021. Miscellaneous Business Papers, 1912 October 26 - 1980 December 10

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0022. Type "NY" Pacific Pumper operating manual, undated

File Unit 0023. Propulsion Machinery Single-screw Tanker Hull 5486 operating guide, 1959 March

File Unit 0024. Propulsion Machinery Single-screw Tanker Hull 5487 operating guide, 1959 March

File Unit 0025. Propulsion Machinery Single-screw Tanker Hull 5484 operating guide, 1958 October

File Unit 0026. Propulsion Machinery Single-screw Tanker Hull 5483 operating guide, 1958 September

File Unit 0027. Propulsion Machinery Single-screw Cargo Vessel Design C4-S-1f operating guide, 1954 December

File Unit 0028. Propulsion Machinery Single-screw Cargo Vessel Design C4-S-1a operating guide, 1953 December

File Unit 0029. Portable Gasoline Engine Driven Centrifugal Fire Pump Johnson model P-500C operating manual, 1945 August 15

File Unit 0030. Portable Gasoline Engine Driven Centrifugal Fire Pump Johnson model 500A operating manual, 1944 June 30

File Unit 0031. Shipyard Pass, 1939 October 3

File Unit 0032. Union Iron Works Company, Standard Sub-Division of Costs, 1918 September 1

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0033. Malta Government Lottery documents, 1956 March

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0034. Job Numbers for Vessel Costs, 1955 July 1

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0035. Standard Sub-Division of Vessel Costs, Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, Ltd., 1936 January 1

File Unit 0036. Standard Sub-Division of Vessel Costs, Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, Ltd., undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0037. Injury Report, 1949 June 16

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0038. Standard Sub-Division of Vessel Costs, Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, Ltd., 1936 January 1

File Unit 0039. Summaries, 1906-1910

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0040. Operating Expense Ledgers, 1931-1949

File Unit 0041. Inventory ledger, 1939-1946

File Unit 0042. Notebook, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0043. List of Ships Built, San Francisco yard, Bethlehem - Alameda, San Pedro yard, 1884-1945

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0044. "Isthmian" Order Book, 1907

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0045. A Century of Progress, 1849-1949, San Francisco yard, Bethlehem Steel Company, Shipbuilding Division, 1949

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0046. Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Shipbuilding Department, Capability Study, 1976 November

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0047. San Francisco Yard, Proposed Capital Improvements, 1957 January 7

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0048. San Francisco Yard, Proposed Capital Improvements, 1959 January 2

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0049. San Francisco Yard, Proposed Capital Improvements, 1959 January 2

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0050. 18-knot Quadruple Screw Direct Drive diesel Passenger Vessel, 1925 June

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0051. Yard Histories and Data, 1888-1954

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0052. Launching Program, SS Philippine Bear, 1961 August 31

File Unit 0053. Correspondence regarding Job Number Charges, 1957 January 22 - 1960 April 22

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0054. Job Numbers for Vessel Costs Books, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0055. Dimensions, Elements of Design, Proposed Armaments and Machinery of a 19 Knot Twin-Screw Battleship of about 15,000 tons with Protected sides, Bulkheads, Casements, Turrets and Barbettes, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0056. Book, Job Numbers for Vessel Costs, 1955 July 1 and 1960 March 1

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0057. Book, Union Iron Works, Hull 128, SS Astral and SS Schofield, Standard Oil of California, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0058. Letter, 1972 February 10

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0059. Specifications for US Seagoing Hopper Dredge, "A. MacKenzie", 1948 October 1

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0060. Dock and Bay Trials for US Seagoing Hopper Dredge, "A. MacKenzie", 1949 June

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0061. Specifications for Twin Screw Passenger and Automobile Ferry for Inter-island Steam Navigation Company, Ltd., 1948 July 28

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0062. Instructions Engineering Piping Systems, single-screw tanker, 1958 November

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0063. Specifications, Twin Screw Combination Vessel, 1942 February

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0064. Reconversion Specifications, for SS Winged Arrow, 1948 July

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0065. Union Iron Works, Plate and Shape Sheets, 1908-1917

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0066. Bureau of Ship Allowance List, AKA 112, 1955 December 1

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0067. Specifications for American President Lines Cargo Ship, 1957 September 20

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0068. Specifications for American President Lines Cargo Ship, 1958 April -1960 October 17

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0069. Main Propulsion Units and Systems, C-1B Type Cargo Vessels, undated

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0070. Technical Manual, Welin Lifesaving Equipment, 1960 September 13

Scope and Content Note

File Unit 0071. Ledger of Purchase Lists by Project,

File Unit 0072-0073. Miscellaneous items, 1943-1973 and undated


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